1: Sneferu sa Djedi mewetif Merit -Resub Alternate Name
OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in February of 2016, via Artemisia.
ẖnm-nfr of Artemisia
Language (Late Middle Egyptian, Middle Egyptian, or Neo-Middle Egyptian; Late Middle preferred) most important.
The previous iteration of this submission Aa-ef-en-moet of Artemisia was returned on the March 2018 LoAR with the following comments:
This item was pended on the October 2017 Letter for additional commentary on whether Egyptian Hieratic names from some portion of the Pharaonic period are or should be registered.
The submitter notes that the quote from SENA GP3A found in the return is no longer current; having been updated as part of the Jan 2017 decisions. https://oscar.sca.org/index.php?action=145&id=69693 The current version reads as follows (changed parts underlined):
SENA and past precedent are against the registration of names from Pharaonic Egypt. GP3A of SENA states:
The center of the Society is medieval and Renaissance Europe. As in the Governing Documents, period is defined as "pre-17th Century". Elements and patterns of names and heraldry found in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (in those places defined below) are allowed. We allow elements and patterns from before the Middle Ages, but require them to be from cultures that were known to medieval and Renaissance Europeans. Therefore, classical Greek and Roman names are registerable, but names from Pharaonic Egypt are not.
The notion that Pharaonic Egypt was completely unknown to medieval and Renaissance Europeans ignores the importance of Egypt in the Christian and Jewish Bibles. In addition to the tale of Exodus, Pharaonic Egypt features prominently in the tales of Abraham (Genesis 12:10-20) and Joseph (Genesis 37-50). In 1 Kings, the Pharaoh of Egypt gave one of his daughters to Solomon as a wife. All in all, Egypt is mentioned more than 600 times in the Bible. However, as several commenters noted, the image of Pharaonic Egypt in the minds of medieval Europeans was, in all likelihood, not remotely similar to the actuality of Egypt. Fortunately, we do not have to rely only on the Biblical depictions of Egypt.
Recent archeological work (in particular, work by the British Museum) establishes that Egypt and Greece were in direct contact from approximately the 2nd millennium B.C.E. onwards. Active sea-based trade between Greece and Egypt seems to have been established by at least 600 B.C.E., and Greek authors of the 5th-4th centuries were writing extensively about Egyptian culture. Herodotus talks about Greek traders visiting Egyptian towns. Egyptian armies sometimes used Greek mercenaries -- in or about 593 B.C.E., Greek mercenaries left Greek-language graffiti on the legs of the statutes of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel.
Archeological evidence also shows a substantial number of Greeks living permanently in, and intermingling with, Pharaonic Egypt. A Greek settlement called Naukratis was established in Egypt in or about the 7th century B.C.E. and was occupied continuously through at least the 7th century C.E. The British Museum has evidence of 6th century B.C.E. grave stelae that employ Egyptian motifs alongside Greek language and motifs. As another example, in the late 7th century B.C.E., a man named Wah-ib-Re-em-akhet (an Egyptian name), the son of Alexikles and Zonodote (clearly Greeks), was buried in an Egyptian sarcophagus.
Herodotus is the most prominent of the classical Greek writers who discussed the culture, life and religion of the Egyptians. Although Herodotus was not translated into Latin until 1450, monastic authors were nevertheless familiar with his work. In addition, after 1450, multiple editions of Herodotus in Latin and vernacular languages were circulated among Humanist authors and philosophers.
Unfortunately, the specific name at issue does not fall within the time period when we find direct, significant cultural contact between Pharaonic Egypt and Greece. The best current research shows such contact from the 7th century B.C.E. onwards. However, the single attestation of Aa-ef-en-moet is from 879 B.C.E., from a papyrus written in Hieratic script. As there is no evidence of direct, significant cultural contact between Egypt and Greece this early, this name cannot be registered. Because the name is not registerable, we do not decide at this time whether names rendered only in Hieratic script can be registered.
We look forward to ongoing research and discussion concerning the contacts between Egypt and medieval Europe and the registerability of names from Pharaonic Egypt.
The center of the Society is medieval and Renaissance Europe. As in the Governing Documents, period is defined as "pre-17th Century". Elements and patterns of names and heraldry found in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (in those places defined below) are allowed. We register elements and patterns from before the Middle Ages, but require them to be from cultures that were known to medieval and Renaissance Europeans. Therefore, classical Greek and Roman names are registerable, but names recorded only in Egyptian hieroglyphs are not. The preferred language of this name submission is from the Middle Egyptian stage because ME was used for official inscriptions over a longer time period than any other stage of the language (image 1).
The female Egyptian given name ẖnm-nfr is recorded in hieratic Egyptian script in three texts; all of which are mummy bandages. In all three texts ẖnm-nfr is listed as the mother of the deceased. The first two texts, TM 113994 (BC 350 - 250, image 2) and TM 114000 (BC 664 - 30, image 3), list the deceased person as Ỉy-m-ḥtp. The third text, TM 114134 (BC 664 - 30, image 4), lists the deceased person as H̱nm-nḫṱ. Attestations of these relationships can be found at the following links by clicking on the people button and then clicking on the individual names. Because these dates overlap, it is possible the person named ẖnm-nfr in all three texts is the same individual. Due to the practice of naming multiple children the same names (ex. the brothers ʿnḫ-mr-wr recorded in the Rendell Papyrus, translated by Hughes and Jasnow in Oriental Institute Hawara Papyri, image 5), it is even possible that these three texts record the name of a mother of three children. But in any case, the name was recorded three times in the period defined by Pelican in the return.
The TBP links from the Trismegistos pages of TM 113994 and TM 114134 give more information on those texts in German as well as some Hi-Res images. TM 113994 is also discussed in French in the journal Bulletin de l`Institut français d`archéologie orientale (BIFAO) 82 (1982), p. 109-211. The fourth link is to a PDF of that article.
The two transcription systems commonly used to represent Egyptian uniliteral signs are the British and European systems. The submitted spelling follows the European system because, of the two, that system uses the fewest diacritical marks. A lower-case version of the letter ẖ is already defined in the Da'ud table, so the submitted spelling would not require an addition to the Da'ud table. According to James Allen, most Egyptologists currently think this letter represents a palatalized glottal h (Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs pg. 18 and 19, images to be found in commentary). Please note that this would be the first instance of a non-capitalized Egyptian given name in the O&A, if it is registered. I doubt that will be a problem, but if it is, I will accept a capitalized version of this given name; i.e. H̱nm-nfr. In fact, while I strongly prefer not to insert vowels, I will accept any spelling Pelican deems appropriate. If the European transcription system is deemed unusable, I prefer the following transcription systems in descending order of preference European, British, Computer encoding, proto-Semitic, and Budge. A comparison of these can be found at the bottom of pg. 17 of Allen (image to be found in commentary). Please note that by the computer encoding transcription system Xnm-nfr and xnm-nfr are different words.
Artemisia, Kingdom of: This branch-name was registered in June of 1998 (via Artemisia).
Correction to Alternate Name (2019-Jan-07 06:01:53): The Allen referenced here is the 3rd Edition.
The above submission has images. To view them, see the URLs below: