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Atlantia ILoI - 2023-07-22

12: Lind Rachael Fessel of the Falconshield -New Request for Name Reconsideration

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in December of 1987, via the East.

Sindara Lind Rachael Fossel of the Falconshield

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No changes.
Spelling (none specified) most important.

The name was registered as Lind Rachael Fossel of the Falconshield in December 1987.
This is from the December 1987 LoAR: "The name was submitted as Sindara Lind Rachael Fessel of the Falconshield. It was stated that "Sindara" was a feminized Hebrew form from Alexander the diminutive form "Sender". No adequate support could be adduced for this and the consensus was that the bulk of Society members would more plausibly derive this from "Sindar", the ethnic name for the Grey Elves of Tolkien. To register the remainder of the name change we have dropped the problematic "Sindara"."

Executive summary: Sindara is a hypothetical feminine name formed from a Jewish vernacular name from Germany. The root name is Sander/Sender, a hypocoristic form of the name Alexander found in Beider, s.n. Aleksander and FamilySearch. Examples of i/e and e/a switches from Beider are provided for Jewish names from Germany, as are examples of feminization with -a from FamilySearch. The remainder of the name, containing the current lingual mix and a double byname, are already registered to the submitter. As this introduced a triple given name, a pattern not found in the existing registration, triple given names have been documented for Ashkenazic Jews (outside of Germany) and by non-Jews in Germany at the same time. Jewish bynames can follow the same patterns of the vernacular language and culture (SENA, Appendix A).

Construction of Sender/Sander(us) > Sindar(us) > Sindara:Aleksander is found in the Talmud and regularly in Hebrew documents per Beider, A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation, and Migrations (p. 97 and s.n. Aleksander). The name is identified as a shem ha-qodesh (sacred or religious name) despite its Greek origins.

The name can be found in multiple spellings and in derivative forms. Hypocoristic forms are made by truncating names and by adding a suffix to the short form, e.g., as in Aleksander > Sender > Senderlin, or Barukh > Bore > Porlin. Further discussion of suffixes in Jewish names can be found in Beider, chapter 3, Creation of Hypocoristic and Pet Forms.
Name (transliteration from Beider)Date Place (Language)
Sanders 1270 Cologne (Latin)
זנדרלין (Zenderlin) 1298 Würzburg (Hebrew)
Sendir 14th century Frankfurt (German)
Senderlin 1333 Frankfurt (German)
Senderlin 1347 Speyer (German)
Senderlin 1349 Alsace (German)
Sander 1349 Netherlands (German)
Sanderman 1370 Cologne area (German)
Sandermann 1378 Worms (German)
Sandirman 1382 Hessen (German)
Sanderman 1384 Frankfurt (German)
Sander 1385 Hessen (German)
Sendirlin 1406 Erfurt (German)
Sandel, Sanndel 1476, 1500 Alsace (German)
Senderkein* 1490 Bavaria
Sander 1506 Frankfurt
סענדר (Sender) 1593-1836 Prague (Hebrew)
סנדר, סענדר (Sender) 1622-1794 Frankfurt (Hebrew)
* May be a scribal error for Senderlein

In addition, the Sander and the Latinized form Sanderus were part of the vernacular name pool used by non-Jews in Germany, as recorded in parish records (FamilySearch).
Sander Gorts and Caecilia in den Schmitten, 1646, Lobberich, Rheinland, Prussia, batch M95477-1
Sanderus Henricks, 2 Jan 1641, Elten, Rheinland, Prussia, batch J97278-1.

Latinization of Jewish names can also be found, e.g., Alter > Altman > Oltmanus (Beider)

Jewish feminine names are frequently recorded in vernacular forms (Appendix A of SENA). Beider provides examples of the creation of feminine forms from masculine Ashkenazic Jewish names from Germany (1096 to the early 15th century): Joseph > Yossifia. Moses > Moset/Muset (?),Yakar > Yakara, and Jordan > Jorde.

In addition, examples of Latin-style feminization with -a in vernacular German records can be found (FamilySearch):
Alexander Wueeland and Anna Schenckh, 1596, Mainhardt, Neckarkreis, Wuerttemberg, batch M92349-4
Christian Schunborn and Alexandra von Lechnich, 1643, Sankt Aposteln, Koeln Stadt, Rheinland, Prussia, batch M96880-1
Philipp Lebsanffl and Anna Snapper, 1596, Denkendorf, Neckarkreis, Wuerttemberg, batch M95828-1
Philippus Steinmetz and Anna Hamm, 1646, Franziskaner Kloster, Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Baden, batch M99483-1
Philippa Maria Mullers, 19 Feb 1604, Sankt Michael, Schwaebisch Hall, Jagstkreis, Wuerttemberg, batch C92336-2
Peter Fritten and Philippa Hansen, 1615, Birkenfeld, Oldenburg, Germany, batch M99475-2
Simon Berckh and Christina Troester, 1647, Boennigheim, Neckarkreis, Wuerttemberg, batch 8M95430-3
Simona Hohl, 29 Oct 1617, Beihingen, Neckarkreis, Wuerttemberg, batch C95181-1

It should be noted that not every German name is feminized in this way, but it can happen with certain Biblical and Classical names. Given the examples of Sanderus and Alexandra, both derived from Aleksander, the feminine form Sandera should be reasonable.

Beider notes in section 0.2., Problems with Sources, that the letter yod (י) can represent /i/, /e/, /ey/, and /ay/; the letter waw (ו) can represent /o/, /u/, /oy/, and /v/; and that /a/ and /e/ were often omitted in texts written in Hebrew. As a specific example, he notes that Sander and Sender could be written the same way in Hebrew. As a result, we can find examples of i/e, y/e, and e/a switches in Latin and German-language records:
Sendirlin / Senderlin / Sender / Sander . Sendir - see table above [Greek origin name]
Carpel (1333, Carinthia, German) / Carpil (1355, Rhineland, German) - Beider, s.n. Karpl [Greek origin name]
Eberlyn (1476, Regensburg, German) / Ebirleyn (1478, Silesia, Latin) - Beider, s.n. Avrom
Aberlen (1544, Hessen, German) / Eberlinus (1310, Baden, German) / Aeberlin (1338, Nürnberg, German) / Eberlin (1476, Regensburg, German) - Beider, s.n. Avrom
Abirliep (1341, Rhineland, German) / Aberlieb (1479, 1485, Frankfurt, German) - Beider, s.n. Avrom
Benit (14th century, Frankfurt, German) / Bennet (1410, Bavaria, German) / Bynet (1492, Alsace, German) - Beider, s.n. Bendit
Lesir (1305, Vienna, German) / Lesyr (1320, Bavaria, German) / Leser, Lesir (1330, 1338, Nürnberg, German) - Beider, s.n. Elieyzer
Loser, Lozer, Loszer, Losir, Loszir (before 1408, Erfurt, German) - Beider, s.n. Elozer
Kerstin, Kirsten, Kirstan, Karsten/Carsten ("Middle Ages", German non-Jews, forms of Christian) - Beider, s.n. Gershn
Channan (1338, Nürnberg, German) / Chanen (1452, Silesia, Latin) - Beider, s.n. Elkhonen
Lasan (1380, Switzerland, German) / Lasen (15th century, Swabia, German) - Beider, s.n. Elozer
Lasarman, Lazerman (1476, 1500, Alsace, German) / Laserman (1500, Alsace, German) - Beider, s.n. Elozer
Kalman (1338, Nürnberg, German) / Kalmen (1391, Frankfurt, German) - Beider, s.n. Kalmen [Greek origin name]

These switches appear to occur regardless of the linguistic origin of the name (e.g., Greek or Hebrew).

Therefore, Sindara should be registerable as a plausible spelling variant.

Existing Registration Allowance and the Name Patterns:

The name phrases Lind, Rachael, Fessel, and of the Falconshield are all registered to the submitter and neutral in place/time under the Existing Registration Allowance (see PN1B2g and PN2C2d of SENA). Such phrases can be combined with a new name phrase from a single regional naming group as long as no new issues are introduced. However, The first three were able to be documented and did not need the ERA:

Lind is a header form in Beider/Gentry, which glosses it as 'gentle-minded, kind'. (The original documentation glossed it as 'swift'.) The attested form is der Linde, 1254. Lind is also an English surname found in FamilySearch that could be used as a given name in England [Alton of Grimfells, Apr 2010, A-East] and then borrowed into German [Feb 2015 Cover Letter] as a German given name:
Carolyn Lind, 30 Nov 1623, Marden, Kent, England, batch C04366-7
Rachael is a Jewish feminine name dated before 1400 in German records from Erfurt (Beider, s.n. Rokhl).
Fessel is an occupational German surname ('small wooden container') with derived forms found in Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Fäßler. The submitted spelling is found in FamilySearch:
Hanss Fessel and Agness Glassers, 1573, Borg, Rheinland, Prussia, batch M99062-4
of the Falconshield was a constructed English inn-sign name that could not be redocumented. It will need the ERA.

As the mix of English and German previously existed in the submitter's already-registered name, it should be similarly allowed in the present submission under the ERA.

This submission uses the pattern <triple given name> + <surname> + <locative>, which is not found in the originally registered name. Double bynames in German and English are found in App A of SENA.

Double given names are found in both the German and Ashkenazic Jewish regional naming groups (Appendix A, SENA). According to Beider, triple given names are also used by Ashkenazic Jews, although this was very rare. Beider states that, "[t]raditionally, for Ashkenazic Jews no limit was imposed on the maximum number of given names that could be borne by a single person" and that "Ashkenazic children receive given names of deceased relatives, a custom that existed by the Middle Ages and was reinforced during the following centuries." Beider gives multiple examples of double given names in Germany and Austria between 1285 and 1349, including three for women, along with alias names (using dictus or an equivalent in Hebrew or Aramaic) that were dated from c.1160 to the end of our period:
Bona Ester (F, 1296-1342) - Nürnberg
Hanlin Hevlin (F, 1349) - Nürnberg
Jiska Vromut (F, 1296-1342) - Nürnberg
Malka de-mitkaria Esther (F, early 15th century) - Rhineland
Rebecca de-mitkaria Malka (F, early 15th century) - Regensburg

Double given names were 1.1%-21.0% of names from Germany between 1601-1800. Most examples of double given names were related names (e.g., a shem ha-qodesh and its corresponding secular form/kinnui) rather than "genuine" or independent given names, but Beider identified at least two examples of independent double given names: Samuel Juda and Hanlin Hevlin (listed above).

For triple given names, no specific examples were provided by Beider for Germany before 1742. However, three examples of triple given names were found for Ashkenazic Jews in Prague between 1612 and 1640:
Issachar Ber Aaron (1612) - Ber ('bear') is a kinnui of Isokher
Jacob Juda Leyb (1634) - Leyb ('lion') is a kinnui of Judah
Moses Asher Anshl (1640) - Asher and Anshl are related due to their phonetic similarity

Both German and Czech were used in Bohemia at this time, and Beider does not indicate if these were recorded in Hebrew or a vernacular language. Because they were not independent given names, Beider doesn't consider these to be "genuine" triple given names. However, we have a handful of examples of triple given names in the surrounding German community during the gray period (FamilySearch):
Maria Elizabeth Otthilia Huebler, daughter of Christophorus Huebler and Maria Magdalena Kroemphin, 28 Sep 1648, Herbolzheim, Emmendingen, Freiburg, Baden, batch C39279-1
Anna Margareta Lucia von Schmidtz, daughter of Benjamin Franciscus von Schmidtz and Elizabeth Anna Catharina von Bense, 22 Aug 1633, Sankt Aposteln, Koeln Stadt, Rheinland, Prussia, batch K96880-1
Helena Anna Maria Clason, daughter of Abraham Clason, 2 Feb 1636, Esslingen, Neckarkreis, Wuerttemberg, batch C94136-3

Therefore, it is plausible that a Jewish woman could also bear a triple given name in Germany. Lastly, Jewish elements from Germany can be combined with German elements under Appendix C of SENA.

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