Palimpsest Rules Letter dated 2018-02-10

After my right hearty recommendations, please you to consider the following proposal.

The December 2016 Palimpsest Rules Letter proposed multiple changes to the personal name conflict rules in SENA PN.3.C. As the College discussed the proposed changes, it became clear that different heralds' interpretation of phrases such as "a single change in sound" were inconsistent. This proposed revision adds more careful definitions of changes in sound and appearance, and adds a new subsection with examples of conflict checks combining sound and appearance rules.

Non-personal name rule changes will follow once these are finalized.

1: Change to SENA PN.3.C - New Rule Change

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

This rule change adds definitions of "change in sound" and "change in appearance".

Current Text

C. Standards for Identity Conflict: To be clear of identity conflict, two names must be substantially different in both sound and appearance. Because conflict is a modern concept, we consider matters such as meaning, language, etymological origin, etc. to be irrelevant for conflict. Only sound and appearance are considered for difference. Thus, the Latinized form of a name may be clear of conflict with the vernacular form. While we do not go out of our way to consider variant pronunciations, we do consider important period and modern pronunciations of name elements.

To be substantially different, a pair of names must meet at least one standard for substantial difference in sound and at least one standard for substantial difference in appearance, as described below. Names may be different in sound under one standard and appearance under another standard. Names are compared as complete items, so that Lisa Betta Gonzaga conflicts with Lisabetta Gonzaga, although the elements are different.

Proposed Text

C. Standards for Identity Conflict: To be clear of identity conflict, two names must be substantially different in both sound and appearance. Because conflict is a modern concept, we consider matters such as meaning, language, etymological origin, etc. to be irrelevant for conflict. Only sound and appearance are considered for difference. Thus, the Latinized form of a name may be clear of conflict with the vernacular form. While we do not go out of our way to consider variant pronunciations, we do consider important period and modern pronunciations of name elements.

To be substantially different, a pair of names must meet at least one standard for substantial difference in sound and at least one standard for substantial difference in appearance, as described below. Names may be different in sound under one standard and appearance under another standard. Names are compared as complete items, so that Lisa Betta Gonzaga conflicts with Lisabetta Gonzaga, although the elements are different.

Analyzing substantial changes in sound often requires counting sound changes. Under these standards, a single sound is defined as a consonant sound, vowel sound, or diphthong (two vowels combined in a single syllable).

For example, the English given name Ann has two sounds: the vowel sound represented by 'A', and the consonant 'n'. For example, in the classical Roman name Gaius, the 'a' and the 'i' combine to form a diphthong that has the same sound as the vowel in the English word my. Thus, the name Gaius has four sounds: the consonant represented by 'G', the diphthong 'ai', the vowel 'u', and the consonant 's'.

A change to appearance involves the insertion, deletion, or substitution of a letter or space. Changes to accents and punctuation do not contribute to substantial changes in appearance. Changes between upper- and lowercase also do not contribute to substantial changes in appearance.

Insert/Delete Version

C. Standards for Identity Conflict: To be clear of identity conflict, two names must be substantially different in both sound and appearance. Because conflict is a modern concept, we consider matters such as meaning, language, etymological origin, etc. to be irrelevant for conflict. Only sound and appearance are considered for difference. Thus, the Latinized form of a name may be clear of conflict with the vernacular form. While we do not go out of our way to consider variant pronunciations, we do consider important period and modern pronunciations of name elements.

To be substantially different, a pair of names must meet at least one standard for substantial difference in sound and at least one standard for substantial difference in appearance, as described below. Names may be different in sound under one standard and appearance under another standard. Names are compared as complete items, so that Lisa Betta Gonzaga conflicts with Lisabetta Gonzaga, although the elements are different.

Analyzing substantial changes in sound often requires counting sound changes. Under these standards, a single sound is defined as a consonant sound, vowel sound, or diphthong (two vowels combined in a single syllable).

For example, the English given name Ann has two sounds: the vowel sound represented by 'A', and the consonant 'n'. For example, in the classical Roman name Gaius, the 'a' and the 'i' combine to form a diphthong that has the same sound as the vowel in the English word my. Thus, the name Gaius has four sounds: the consonant represented by 'G', the diphthong 'ai', the vowel 'u', and the consonant 's'.

A change to appearance involves the insertion, deletion, or substitution of a letter or space. Changes to accents and punctuation do not contribute to substantial changes in appearance. Changes between upper- and lowercase also do not contribute to substantial changes in appearance.


2: Change to SENA PN.3.C.1 - New Rule Change

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Current Text

1. Changes to Two Syllables: Names are substantially different if changes in sound and appearance affect at least two syllables (including adding, removing, or reordering them). If the changes only affect adjacent letters or sounds, they must affect more than two letters or sounds to be considered under this allowance. Change in spacing is a change in appearance, but is not considered a change in sound. Changes to any part of the name count, including articles and prepositions.

For example, Alana Red is substantially different from Elena Reed, because at least two syllables change in both sound and appearance. Maria Smith is substantially different from Miriam Smith, because it removes one syllable and changes another in both sound and appearance. Richard Loudeham is substantially different from Richard Loveman, because two syllables have changes to them.

For example, Anne Jones London is substantially different from Anne Joan of London, because it changes one syllable in both sound and appearance and removes another. John de Aston is substantially different from John Asson, because it adds one syllable and changes another in both sound and appearance. William Underthecliff is substantially different from William Cliff, because it adds three syllables. Margaret atte Mor is substantially different from Margaret de la Mor; because it changes two syllables in both sound and appearance.

Proposed Text

1. Changes to the Sound of Two Syllables: Names are substantially different in sound if changes in sound affect at least two syllables (including adding, removing, or reordering them). If the changes only affect adjacent sounds, they must affect more than two sounds to be considered under this allowance. Changes to any part of the name count, including articles and prepositions.

For example, here are some names that are substantially different in sound due to changes in more than one syllable. Richard Wainham is substantially different in sound from Richard Warman, because two syllables have changes to them. Similarly, the name Alana Red is substantially different in sound from Elena Reed, because at least two syllables change in sound. Note that the changes to the first and second vowels are not adjacent, because they are separated by the consonant sound 'l'.

For example, here are some names that are substantially different in sound due to changes that include adding or removing syllables. Maria le Smyth is substantially different in sound from Marian Smith, because the second name removes one syllable and changes the sound of another. Similarly, John de Aston is substantially different in sound from John Asson, because the second name removes one syllable and changes the sound of another. Anne Jones London is substantially different in sound from Anne Joan of London, because the second name changes the sound of one syllable and adds another. William Underthecliff is substantially different in sound from William Cliff, because the second name removes three syllables. Margaret atte Mor is substantially different in sound from Margaret de la Mor, because the change in prepositions affects the sound of two syllables. The name Margot de Blois is substantially different in sound from Margot du Bois, because both syllables in the byname have changed. Note that the change in the vowel from de to du is not adjacent to the removal of the 'l' from Blois, because these sounds are separated by the 'B' consonant sound.

For example, here are some pairs of names that are not substantially different in sound under this rule. The name Andrew Anser is not substantially different from the name Andrew Aster. The change from the 'n' to the 's' sound and the change from the 's' to the 't' sound are directly adjacent, so although these changes are in two different syllables, they are not enough to clear conflict. Similarly, the name Kathrin Tricker is not substantially different from the name Catlin Tricker. Again, the change from the 'th' sound to the 't' sound and the change from the 'r' sound to the 'l' sound are directly adjacent; moreover, the letters 'K' and 'C' represent the same sound.

Insert/Delete Version

1. Changes to the Sound of Two Syllables: Names are substantially different in sound if changes in sound and appearance affect at least two syllables (including adding, removing, or reordering them). If the changes only affect adjacent letters or sounds, they must affect more than two letters or sounds to be considered under this allowance. Change in spacing is a change in appearance, but is not considered a change in sound. Changes to any part of the name count, including articles and prepositions.

For example, here are some names that are substantially different in sound due to changes in more than one syllable. Richard Wainham is substantially different in sound from Richard Warman, because two syllables have changes to them. Similarly, the name Alana Red is substantially different in sound from Elena Reed, because at least two syllables change in both sound and appearance. sound. Note that the changes to the first and second vowels are not adjacent, because they are separated by the consonant sound 'l'.

For example, here are some names that are substantially different in sound due to changes that include adding or removing syllables. Maria le Smyth is substantially different in sound from Marian Smith is substantially different from Miriam Smith, because it , because the second name removes one syllable and changes another in both sound and appearance. Richard Loudeham is substantially different from Richard Loveman, because two syllables have changes to them. For example, the sound of another. Similarly, John de Aston is substantially different in sound from John Asson, because the second name removes one syllable and changes the sound of another. Anne Jones London is substantially different in sound from Anne Joan of London, because it changes the second name changes the sound of one syllable in both sound and appearance and removes and adds another. John de Aston is substantially different from John Asson, because it adds one syllable and changes another in both sound and appearance. William Underthecliff is substantially different in sound from William Cliff, because it adds the second name removes three syllables. Margaret atte Mor is substantially different in sound from Margaret de la Mor; because it changes , because the change in prepositions affects the sound of two syllables. The name Margot de Blois is substantially different in sound from Margot du Bois, because both syllables in both sound and appearance.the byname have changed. Note that the change in the vowel from de to du is not adjacent to the removal of the 'l' from Blois, because these sounds are separated by the 'B' consonant sound.

For example, here are some pairs of names that are not substantially different in sound under this rule. The name Andrew Anser is not substantially different from the name Andrew Aster. The change from the 'n' to the 's' sound and the change from the 's' to the 't' sound are directly adjacent, so although these changes are in two different syllables, they are not enough to clear conflict. Similarly, the name Kathrin Tricker is not substantially different from the name Catlin Tricker. Again, the change from the 'th' sound to the 't' sound and the change from the 'r' sound to the 'l' sound are directly adjacent; moreover, the letters 'K' and 'C' represent the same sound.


3: Change to SENA PN.3.C.2 - New Rule Change

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Current Text

2. Substantial Change to One Syllable: Names are substantially different if a single syllable between them (excluding articles and prepositions, such as de and the) is changed in both sound and appearance as described here. The addition or removal of a syllable makes two names substantially different in sound. Two names are also substantially different if a syllable is substantially changed in sound and appearance. This means that the vowel and the consonant (or group of consonants) on one side of the vowel is different between the two names. In either case, the change in spelling (including addition or removal of letters) must affect at least two letters in that syllable to be substantial.

For example, both Maria Jones and Miriam Jones are substantially different in sound from either Mary Jones or Marie Jones, because those names add a syllable. Miriam Jones is also substantially different in appearance from both Mary Jones and Marie Jones. However, Maria Jones is not substantially different in appearance from Marie Jones, because only one letter is changed. Also, Mary Jones is not substantially different in sound from Marie Jones. While the most common modern pronunciation of the given names is different, one important late period and modern pronunciation makes both names the same (as MA-ree). Thus they conflict. While we do not go out of our way to consider variant pronunciations, we do consider important period and modern pronunciations of name elements.

For example, Connor MacRobert is substantially different from Conan MacRobert or Conall MacRobert, because the second syllable of the given names is substantially different in both sound and appearance. Likewise, Colin L'Estrange is substantially different from Colin Strange, because a syllable of the byname is removed. Colin L'Estrange is not substantially different from Colin Lestrange, because the change in sound is negligible, and the change in appearance does not substantially change the syllable.

Proposed Text

2. Substantial Change to the Sound of One Syllable: Names are substantially different in sound if a single syllable between them (excluding articles and prepositions, such as de and the) is changed in both sound and appearance as described here. The addition or removal of a syllable makes two names substantially different in sound. Two names are also substantially different in sound if the sound of a syllable is substantially changed in one of the following ways. If a vowel and the consonant or group of consonants on one side of this vowel is different between the two names, we consider a syllable to be substantially changed. When the sounds of the consonant or group of consonants on both sides of a vowel are completely different, we also consider the syllable to be substantially changed.

For example, both Maria Smith and Marian Smith are substantially different in sound from either Mary Smyth or Marie Smyth: Maria and Marian both have three syllables, while Mary and Marie have only two syllables, so in each case the number of syllables in the name is changed. Likewise, Colin L'Estrange is substantially different from Colin Strange, because the bynames have different numbers of syllables.

For example, Connor MacRobert is substantially different in sound from Conan MacRobert or Conall MacRobert, because the vowel and the final consonants of the second syllable of the given names are different in each case. For example, William Dulford is substantially different in sound from William Muttford, as the consonants on both sides of the vowel in the first syllable of the byname have been changed. Likewise, Mary Catford is substantially different in sound from Mary Radford, and Godric of London is substantially different in sound from Godwin of London.

For example, Úna inghean Duinn is not substantially different in sound from Úna inghean Chuinn, because only one group of consonants in the final syllable of the byname has been changed. Margerie Clutter is not substantially different in sound from Margery Catter, because the given names sound identical and, although the first syllables of the bynames are different, the cl and c groups of consonants share a sound and the other consonant group is identical. Mary Jones is not substantially different in sound from Marie Jones. While the most common modern pronunciation of the given names uses different vowel sounds for the first syllables of the given names and breaks the syllables in different places, one important late period and modern pronunciation makes both names the same (as MA-ree). Thus they conflict. While we do not go out of our way to consider variant pronunciations, we do consider important period and modern pronunciations of name elements.

Insert/Delete Version

2. Substantial Change to the Sound of One Syllable: Names are substantially different in sound if a single syllable between them (excluding articles and prepositions, such as de and the) is changed in both sound and appearance as described here. The addition or removal of a syllable makes two names substantially different in sound. Two names are also substantially different in sound if the sound of a syllable is substantially changed in sound and appearance. This means that the one of the following ways. If a vowel and the consonant (or or group of consonants) consonants on one side of the this vowel is different between the two names. In either case, the change in spelling (including addition or removal of letters) must affect at least two letters in that names, we consider a syllable to be substantial.substantially changed. When the sounds of the consonant or group of consonants on both sides of a vowel are completely different, we also consider the syllable to be substantially changed.

For example, both Maria Jones and Miriam JonesSmith and Marian Smith are substantially different in sound from either Mary JonesSmyth or Marie JonesSmyth: Maria and Marian both have three syllables, while Mary and Marie have only two syllables, so in each case the number of syllables in the name is changed. Likewise, Colin L'Estrange is substantially different from Colin Strange, because those names add a syllable. Miriam Jones is also substantially different in appearance from the bynames have different numbers of syllables.

For example, Connor MacRobert is substantially different in sound from Conan MacRobert or Conall MacRobert, because the vowel and the final consonants of the second syllable of the given names are different in each case. For example, William Dulford is substantially different in sound from William Muttford, as the consonants on both sides of the vowel in the first syllable of the byname have been changed. Likewise, Mary Jones and Marie Jones. However, Maria JonesCatford is substantially different in sound from Mary Radford, and Godric of London is substantially different in sound from Godwin of London.

For example, Úna inghean Duinn is not substantially different in appearance from Marie Jonessound from Úna inghean Chuinn, because only one letter is group of consonants in the final syllable of the byname has been changed. Also, Margerie Clutter is not substantially different in sound from Margery Catter, because the given names sound identical and, although the first syllables of the bynames are different, the cl and c groups of consonants share a sound and the other consonant group is identical. Mary Jones is not substantially different in sound from Marie Jones. While the most common modern pronunciation of the given names is different, uses different vowel sounds for the first syllables of the given names and breaks the syllables in different places, one important late period and modern pronunciation makes both names the same (as MA-ree). Thus they conflict. While we do not go out of our way to consider variant pronunciations, we do consider important period and modern pronunciations of name elements.

For example, Connor MacRobert is substantially different from Conan MacRobert or Conall MacRobert, because the second syllable of the given names is substantially different in both sound and appearance. Likewise, Colin L'Estrange is substantially different from Colin Strange, because a syllable of the byname is removed. Colin L'Estrange is not substantially different from Colin Lestrange, because the change in sound is negligible, and the change in appearance does not substantially change the syllable.


4: Change to SENA PN.3.C.3 - New Rule Change

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Current Text

3. Substantial Change of Single-Syllable Name Phrase: Two names with a comparable single-syllable name phrase are eligible for this rule. A pair of name phrases are said to be comparable if they both have the same position in the name, such as given name or first byname. Comparable single-syllable name phrases are generally substantially different in sound if a group of adjacent vowels or of adjacent consonants within a word are completely changed, so that it shares no sound in common. In rare cases, the sound may still be too similar for this rule to clear the conflict. The change of a single letter is sufficient for two eligible name phrases to be different in appearance, as such name phrases are quite short. On a case by case basis, two-syllable names phrases may be eligible for this rule, such as Harry and Mary.

For example, John Smith is substantially different from Jane Smith. Anne Best is substantially different from Anne West. Ellen Lang is substantially different from Ellen Long. James Ed is substantially different from James Lead. In each case, an adjacent group of vowels or consonants is completely changed in sound and appearance.

For example, Matthew Joan is not substantially different from Matthew Jones because the n and nz groups share a sound and a letter. Richard Blott is not substantially different from Richard Lot because the bland l group share a sound and a letter. Katerine de la Mar is not substantially different from Katerine de la Mor because they don't have comparable single-syllable name phrases and cannot use this rule.

New Text

3. Substantial Change to the Sound of a Single-Syllable Name Phrase: Two names with a comparable single-syllable name phrase are eligible for this rule. A pair of name phrases are said to be comparable if they both have the same position in the name, such as given name or first byname. Comparable single-syllable name phrases are generally substantially different in sound if a group of adjacent vowels or of adjacent consonants within a word are completely changed, so that it shares no sound in common. In rare cases, the sound may still be too similar for this rule to clear the conflict. On a case by case basis, two-syllable name phrases may be eligible for this rule, such as Harry and Mary.

For example, John Smith is substantially different in sound from Jane Smith. Anne Best is substantially different in sound from Anne West. Ellen Lang is substantially different in sound from Ellen Long. James Ed is substantially different in sound from James Lead. In each case, an adjacent group of vowels or consonants is completely changed in sound.

For example, Matthew Joan is not substantially different in sound from Matthew Jones because the n and nz consonant groups share a sound. Richard Blott is not substantially different in sound from Richard Lot because the bl and l consonant groups share a sound. Katerine de la Mar is not substantially different in sound from Katerine de la Mor because they don't have comparable single-syllable name phrases and cannot use this rule.

Insert/Delete Version

3. Substantial Change of to the Sound of a Single-Syllable NameName Phrase Phrase: : Two names with a comparable single-syllable name phrase are eligible for this rule. A pair of name phrases are said to be comparable if they both have the same position in the name, such as given name or first byname. Comparable single-syllable name phrases are generally substantially different in sound if a group of adjacent vowels or of adjacent consonants within a word are completely changed, so that it shares no sound in common. In rare cases, the sound may still be too similar for this rule to clear the conflict. The change of a single letter is sufficient for two eligible name phrases to be different in appearance, as such name phrases are quite short. On a case by case basis, two-syllable names name phrases may be eligible for this rule, such as Harry and Mary.

For example, John Smith is substantially different in sound from Jane Smith. Anne Best is substantially different in sound from Anne West. Ellen Lang is substantially different in sound from Ellen Long. James Ed is substantially different in sound from James Lead. In each case, an adjacent group of vowels or consonants is completely changed in sound and appearance.sound.

For example, Matthew Joan is not substantially different in sound from Matthew Jones because the n and nz consonant groups share a sound and a letter. sound. Richard Blott is not substantially different in sound from Richard Lot because the bl and l group consonant groups share a sound and a letter. sound. Katerine de la Mar is not substantially different in sound from Katerine de la Mor because they don't have comparable single-syllable name phrases and cannot use this rule.


5: New SENA PN.3.C.4 - New Rule Change

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

New Text

4. Changes to the Appearance of Multiple Letters

If a change in spelling (including addition or removal of letters and insertion or deletion of spaces) affects at least two letters or spaces, a name is substantially different in appearance.

For example, Miriam Jones is substantially different in appearance from both Mary Jones and Marie Jones. Harry Jones is also different from Mary Jones, because the first letter has been changed and another letter has been removed. However, Maria Jones is not substantially different in appearance from Marie Jones, because only one letter is changed.

For example, Colin L'Estrange is not substantially different in appearance from Colin Lestrange: the insertion of the apostrophe does not contribute to substantial difference, and no letters have been changed. The Norse names Sleitu-Einarr and Sléttu-Steinarr are substantially different from each other in appearance, but Sleitu-Einarr is not substantially different in appearance from Sléttu-Einarr, because the accent change does not contribute to difference, and thus only one letter has been changed.


6: New SENA PN.3.C.5 - New Rule Change

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

New Text

5. Substantial Change to the Appearance of a Short Name Phrase

Two names with a comparable one-word name phrase are eligible for this rule. A pair of name phrases are said to be comparable if they both have the same position in the name, such as given name or first byname. Changing one letter in words that both have four or fewer letters suffices for substantial difference in appearance. On a case by case basis, changes to the beginning of longer words, such as Harry and Larry, may also be eligible for this rule.

For example, Noe Wariner and Joe Wariner are substantially different in appearance, because we have changed one letter in a three-letter given name. However, Amice de Bailly is not substantially different in appearance from Avice de Bailly, because only one letter in a five-letter given name has changed. Mary Jones is not substantially different in appearance from Marry Jones, because one of the given names has more than four letters.


7: New SENA PN.3.C.6 - New Rule Change

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

New Text

6. Examples of Personal Name Conflict Checks

Here are some examples of pairs of names that are clear of identity conflict.

For example, Maria Smith is substantially different in sound from Mary Smyth under PN.3.C.2, because the given names have different numbers of syllables. The name Maria Smith is substantially different in appearance from Mary Smyth under PN.3.C.4, because two or more letters (in this case, three) have been inserted, deleted, or changed. Thus, Maria Smith and Mary Smyth are clear of identity conflict.

For example, Anne Best is substantially different in sound from Anne West under PN.3.C.3, because the bynames are single syllables and an entire consonant group has been changed. The name Anne Best is substantially different in appearance from Anne West under PN.3.C.5, because one letter in a four-word byname has changed. Thus, Anne Best and Anne West are clear of identity conflict.

Here is an example of a pair of names that have an identity conflict.

For example, Richard Blott is not substantially different in sound from Richard Lot under PN.3.C.1 because only one syllable has been changed, and thus the rule does not apply. Richard Blott is not substantially different in sound from Richard Lot under PN.3.C.2 or PN.3.C.3 because the bl and l consonant groups share a sound, and thus no consonant group has been completely changed. Because the names are not substantially different in sound under any rule, they have an identity conflict. As it happens, the names have a substantial difference in appearance under PN.3.C.4, because in changing from Blott to Lot two letters are deleted. However, because the names are not substantially different in sound and appearance, they are in conflict.


Written in the Barony of Cynnabar on the feast of Saint Scholastica in the year of grace mmxviii.

Ursula Georges

Palimpsest Herald.


OSCAR counts 7 Rule Changes. These 7 items may or may not require payment. There are a total of 7 items submitted on this letter.