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East LoI dated 2011-03-24

Unto Olwyn Laurel, Istvan Wreath, Juliana Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Asa in Svarta, Blue Tyger Herald.



The Eastern College herewith submits for approval and registration the following items, with our thanks

This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

1: Aoyama Narime - New Name Change

OSCAR NOTE: 'Old Item' should contain the former primary name. The form that is there is not a registered name.

Old Item: Nefise bint Abdullah, to be released.
Submitter desires a feminine name.
Client requests authenticity for 16th century Japan (Muromachi period).
Language (16th century Japan) most important.
Culture (16th century Japan) most important.
Meaning (Narime of Blue Mountain [Aoyama]) most important.

Her current name was registered 07/2009 via the East.

Narime is found in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 3001 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/3001), which states that it is on a list of feminine given names from the Muromachi period (1336-1573), citing NCMJ. Narime is found in NCMJ on pp. 250, 267-8. It has the meanings 'become/exist' (for 'nari') dated from 784, 'perceive/understand' dated 1183, and 'life/live/living' dated 1572.

Aoyama is a surname intended to mean 'blue mountain'. NCMJ (p. 182, Light and Colour) describes Aoyama as a modern surname meaning 'blue/green mountain'. However, it can be constructed from the period elements Aoki 'blue/green tree', a surname found in 1568, and -yama 'mountain'. Examples of the latter are <Okuyama> 'innermost mountain' and <Ooyama> 'big mountain', both from 1568 (ibid., pp. 145, 184, and 323).

The Academy's report (op. cit.) also states that for buke women of that period, one appropriate name pattern was <family name + given name>. As the surname had to be constructed, the authenticity request was not fulfilled.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

2: Bergental, Barony of - New Change of Designator

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in June of 2011, via the East

This is a change of designator, from Shire to Barony. The branch name was registered 01/1982 (East). The branch became a barony in 02/1991.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

3: Black Rose, March of the - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in May of 1986, via the East

Argent, four arrows in saltire, heads outward, sable and four roses in cross sable barbed argent

This submission is to be associated with "Shire March of Blak Rose Archers" [sic]

The shire's name was registered 05/1986 (East). Commenters thought that the arrows and roses were co-primary charges.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

4: Conall mac Taichlich - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (Irish, 8th-10th century) most important.
Culture (Irish, 8th-10th century) most important.
Meaning (Unspecified) most important.

The name was submitted as Conall mac Taithleach, but was changed to correct the grammar (see below).

Conall is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Conall.shtml). It is the standard Old Irish, Middle Irish, and Early Modern Irish Gaelic nominative spelling of the name, which is used by 45 men in the Annals, in years 565-1599.

Taichlich is one of the genitive forms of Taithleach, which is the name of 14 men in the Annals, in years 728-1439 (ibid., http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Taithlech.shtml). The originally submitted spelling, Taithleach is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic nominative spelling. Patronyms are formed using the genitive form of the father's name. In the raw data, three genitive spellings are found: <Taichligh>, <Taichlich> and <Taichlig>. The name was changed to use the second (found in entries for year 771 and 1297), as it seemed to be closest to the originally submitted spelling.

Formation of a simple patronym using <given name + mac + father's name in the genitive case and sometimes lenited> is found in Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#simplepatronymicbyname).

The submitter cares most about language/culture, and secondly about the meaning.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

5: Fearghus Ó Conchobhair - New Name & New Device

Per bend sinister gules and vert, a bend sinister cotised between a pheasant volant bendwise sinister and a dog statant contourny argent

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (Celtic [Irish Gaelic]) most important.
Culture (Celtic [Irish Gaelic]) most important.

Fearghus is a masculine given name found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Fearghus.shtml), found in entries for years 1402-1599. It is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic nominative form of the name.

Conchobhair is the Early Modern Irish genitive form of the name Conchob(h)ar, which is found in years 1201-1603 (ibid., http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Conchobar.shtml).

The clan affiliation byname <single given name> Ó <eponymous clan ancestor's name (in genitive case)> is formed according to Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#clanaffiliationbyname).

The device was redrawn with the submitter's permission in order to make the cotises a little wider (although they are still a bit narrow because Eastern Crown goofed and made the dog too large), and to correct the posture of the pheasant, which had been drawn in a top-down three-quarter view.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

6: Iacobo ibn Daoud - New Name & New Device

Argent, a bend between four dolphins azure

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Language (Iberian Jewish) most important.
Culture (Iberian Jewish) most important.
Meaning (Jacob, son of David) most important.

Iacobo is a form of the name Jacob, with <Iacobo Abrae Coen> found in Juliana de Luna, "Jews in Catalonia: 1250 to 1400" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/catalan-jews/CatalanJews-given-men.html), Additionally, <Jacobo de Frimonet> is found in Juliana's article "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/). Both names were from Latin documents. The submitted spelling is also found in the Spanish text Historia del Reyno de Náples by Pandulfo Colenucio, published in Seville in 1584 (http://books.google.com/books?id=W6duhia3_KgC). For example, "Muerte de Iacobo Caldora" ('death of Jacob Caldora', a general from Naples) appears on p. 92 of book 6, corresponding to p. 197 of the PDF.

ibn is the Arabic particle meaning 'son'. It is found in Da'ud ibn Auda, "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm), as is the formation of patronyms in Arabic. Jewish men also used this particle, e.g., <Ibn Hiba>, found in Yohoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi, "Jewish Names in the World of Medieval Islam" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/jews_in_cairo/index.html). The article also states that, "[i]n the medieval Islamic world [patronyms] could be formed with the grammatical contraction Ben in Hebrew, or Bar in Aramaic or with the Arabic ibin. In some cases the names have been translated simply with the patronymic indicator as `b.' leaving us to guess which form was used originally...In addition in Spain the Latin Filius is sometimes seen, but probably only in Spanish or Latin Christian sources not in documents written by Jews or Muslims." This seems to imply that the Arabic particle could have been used similarly in Spain.

If the submitted name can't be supported for Spanish, the use of the Arabic particle ibn also appears in Italy, per Yehoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi, "Names of Jews in Rome In the 1550's" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/rome_article.html), e.g., <Avigdor called Verga Dora ibn Loro>, <Jehudah Cohen di David Cohen ibn Nardush>, <Jehudah di Giuseppe Ibn Passat>, and <Bongiulo Ibn Loro> (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/rome_names.html). These names are taken from Hebrew records "peppered with Italian terms", showing that vernacular Italian names were intermixed with Hebrew and Arabic. As such, this name could be plausible in Italy as well. The combination of Italian and Arabic is also registerable with a step from period practice [Amat al-Shakoor di Riccardo, 10/2004].

Daoud is a form of David, which is in turn found in Julie Stampnitsky, "Medieval Jewish Names Research" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/masc/david.html). This article states that it appears in Hebrew accounts in 880-8 and 920-40 in Iraq, 1096 in Germany, and 1171 in France, both as a given name and in patronyms. The name is also used in Arabic contexts. In the transliteration notes in Da'ud's article (op. cit.), he stated that he found the submitted spelling while researching his name, so it is presumably a valid spelling in period. Both David and Dā'ūd appear in Yohoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi, "Jewish Names in the World of Medieval Islam" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/jews_in_cairo/cairo_men.html). Dā'ūd is also found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "Jewish Names in Ottoman Court Records (16th C Jerusalem)" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Jerusalem/Men.shtml). In Juliana's article "Jews in Catalonia: 1250-1400" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/catalan-jews/CatalanJews-given-men.html#alpha), the name is found as David, Davi, and Davui (in Latin).

Assistance finding the submitted spelling in Spain in our period is appreciated; however, precedent states that, "[i]n the cases of languages that do not use Roman alphabets (such as Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Hebrew, etc.) we register transliterations using period transliteration systems and modern standard transliterations systems" [Avraham Harofeh, 10/2003 A-Atlantia]. The submitted spelling is found ("Saidna ben Daoud") in the 12th century itinerary by Benjamin of Tudela (from Navarre), purportedly transliterated from Arabic [Jacob Rader Marcus and Marc Saperstein in The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315-1791, Hebrew Union College Press, 1999; http://books.google.com/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC, p. 210)]. At the least, this shows that Daoud is a valid modern transliteration, which should be registerable under that precedent.

The combination of an Arabic patronym with a Latinized Spanish given name does not yet appear to have been ruled upon. However, as the given name was also found in a vernacular source from Spain, it should be able to be combined with the Arabic patronym with one step from period practice [Damiana al-Andalusiyya, 08/04].

If necessary for registration, the submitter will accept Iacobo ben Daoud, using the Hebrew particle documented above.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

7: Iron Bog, Barony of - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in February of 2010, via the East

Per chevron inverted argent and sable, three swords conjoined at the point counterchanged and in base two bill hooks argent

The Barony's name was registered 03/1984 (East), and the designator updated 02/2010 (East). The badge was redrawn with permission to hopefully make the charges more identifiable.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

8: Isolda Fairamay - Resub Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in October of 2010, via the East

Azure, in fess a trident bendwise Or sustained by a blonde mermaid proper, a gore Or

Her name was registered and this same device returned for a redraw on the 10/2010 LOAR (East):

This device is returned for lack of identifiability of the co-primary trident. Using the standard ten-foot rule, the trident disappears into the background. Drawing it wider, and with a better blue background, will probably clear up the identifiability issue.

Properly drawn, it is clear of the device of Fionaghal nan Eilean, Azure, in fess a brunette mermaid facing sinister and sustaining a drawn bow with arrow nocked all proper, reblazoned elsewhere in this letter. There is a CD for the change of type and tincture of the co-primary held charge, as well as a CD for the orientation of the mermaid and a CD for the addition of the gore.

Properly drawn, it is also clear of the device of Ondine Patru de Limantour, Azure, in pale a scarf enarched gules with a stripe purpure sustained by a blonde mermaid contourny proper, also reblazoned elsewhere in this letter. There is a CD for the change of type of the co-primary charge, a CD for the change of arrangement of the charges, and a CD for the addition of the gore.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

9: Jean Corbeau de Montaigne - Resub Name & Resub Device

Argent, on a compass star azure a compass star Or, in chief three mullets and a base wavy azure

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Sound (unspecified) most important.

This is a resubmission of Jean de la Montaigne, which was returned in 09/2006 (East) for conflict:

The name conflicts with Jean de Montaigne, registered April 1996. The given name and the descriptive element of the byname are identical. The addition of the article la is not sufficient difference to clear conflict.

Jean is a masculine given name found with 69 instances in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Names from Artois, 1601" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/french/1601masc.html), s.n. Jean. Corbeau 'crow' is a byname found in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 3162 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/3162):

The modern French Word <corbeau> means 'crow'...

The earlier form of <Corbeau> is <Corbel>, which we find used as a byname in the 13th C, 1340, 1404, and 1438. [8] While we haven't found any example of <Corbeau>, the variant <Corbaut> can be found in 1389 and 1422. [8] We believe that <Corbeau> itself is a plausible as early as the 13th century, and that it could have been quite common by the 14th. We can therefore tentatively recommend <Corbeau> as a fine 16th-century byname.

[8] Morlet, Marie-Therese, Etude d'anthroponymie picarde, les noms de personne en Haute Picardie aux XIIIe, XIVe, siecles (Amiens, Musee de Picardie, 1967), pp. 306, 322

de Montaigne is the byname of the essayist <Michel de Montaigne> (1533-1592), who published several books. A copy of the 1580 edition of his Essais, showing the submitted spelling, is found at http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k701340/f2.image.pagination.r=Montaigne.langEN. A similar byname, de la Montaigne, is found dated 1506 in Loveday Toddekyn, "Flemish Names from Bruges" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/docs/bruges/byname-list3.html).

The device is a resubmission of Argent, a compass star voided, in chief three mullets and in base a bar wavy azure, returned 09/2006 (East):

This device is returned for conflict with a badge of Lorimer MacAltin of Garioch, Argent, on a compass star azure a thistle couped argent. In June 2002 Laurel ruled:

We can thus see that the three following very dissimilar-sounding blazons can all be drawn identically, and thus should be considered heraldically equivalent: A lozenge Or charged with a lozenge gules, A lozenge Or voided gules, and A lozenge gules fimbriated Or. This heraldic equivalence will apply for any charge "simple enough to void" by the criteria stated in the Cover Letter for the November 1992 LoAR. When checking for conflict with armory using fimbriation or voiding, all these interpretations should be considered when checking for conflict, and if one of the interpretations conflicts, the two pieces of armory conflict. This does not seem overly restrictive when one considers the rarity of armory in period featuring voided or fimbriated charges, or arms with the design of A "charge" charged with "the same type of charge". These are very uncommon designs in period. Period viewers probably had the same sorts of problems that we have when interpreting such designs. [Cecily of Whitehaven, 06/02, R-Æthelmearc]

Consider Jean's device as Argent, on a compass star azure a compass star argent, in chief three mullets and in base a bar wavy azure. Against Lorimer's badge there is a CD for adding the secondary charges. However, as there are more than two types of charges on the field, at least two visually significant changes to the tertiary charges are required to gain a CD under RfS X.4.j.ii. Changing the type only of the tertiary charge from a thistle to a compass star is insufficient for the necessary second CD.

The submitter has changed the tinctures of the compass star to clear the conflict.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

10: Kennocht MacAndrew - New Name & New Device

Per pale Or and purpure, a keyhole counterchanged, overall a crescent gules

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Client requests authenticity for unspecified.
Meaning (unspecified) most important.

The name was submitted as Cináed MacAndrew. Although the documentation summary stated that the submitter's persona was "12th century Northern Scottish (in the region of Wick)", this time/place was not indicated in the authenticity request. As the submitted name was a mixture of Gaelic and Scots, the submitter was contacted to confirm what he actually wanted. He indicated that he would like the wholly Scots form of the name that was identified in kingdom commentary. This change was made in accordance with his wishes.

Kennocht is a masculine given name found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Index of Scots names found in Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/scots/dost/kennocht.html), dated 1576.

MacAndrew is intended as 'son of Andrew', reflecting a relationship with his stepfather, Andrew MacRobb (11/1982, East). The relationship was attested on the letter of permission to conflict for the armory submission. However, the submitter did not need to rely on the grandfather or legal relationship clause. Black, s.n. MacAndrew has <Makandro> (1502), McAndro (1613), and McAndrew (1618). The scribal abbreviation in the latter has been expanded to give the submitted spelling. Furthermore, Andrew is found in 1515, per Aryanhwy's article (op. cit., http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/scots/dost/andrew.html), further supporting the submitted spelling for pre-1600.

A letter of permission to conflict with the device of his stepfather is included:

I, <legal name>, known in the SCA as Lord Andrew MacRobb give my stepson; <legal name>, known in the SCA as Cinaed MacAndrew permission for his armory "Per Pale, Or and Purpure, a keyhole counter changed, overall a crescent gules" to look similar to, but not identical to, my armory, "Per Pale, or and purpure, a keyhole counter changed". I understand that this permission cannot be withdrawn once Cinaed MacAndrew's armory is registered.

Signed and dated 14 Jan 2011

Period examples of the so-called "banana crescent" can be provided if needed.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

11: Kirstinn Gunnarsdotter of Bergental - New Name & New Device

Lozengy gules and ermine, a bend sinister cotised azure

Kirstinn is dated 1508 in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Swedish Feminine Given Names from SMP" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/swedish/smp/christina.html), s.n. Christina.

Gunnar is a Swedish male name in SMP, s.n. Gunnar (http://www.sofi.se/5187), with dates ranging over several centuries. Contemporary with the desired spelling of the given name, there are <Gunnar Olsson i Stocholm> (1503), <Gunnar Olsson> (1503), and <Gunnar> (1506).

of Bergental is a locative byname based on the branch name Bergental, Shire of (01/1982, East).

Aryanhwy's article cited above supports the formation of a feminine patronymic byname by adding -dotter to the father's name in the genitive case. Examples in SMP, s.n. Gunnar are <Katherine Gunnars dotter> (1434), <Brigitta Gwnnars dotter> (1507), <Margrit Gwnnarsdotther> (1448), and <Helgha Gunnars dotter> (1446). The submitted spelling was thought to be a reasonable interpolation from those examples.

The device is clear of Annora Wallace (10/2005, Caid), Checky sable and argent, a bend sinister azure, with one CD for changing the field and another for adding cotises.

The device is also clear of Klara Landrada Buckholz von Koln (11/1998, Middle), Or, a bend sinister cotised between four mascles azure, with one CD for changing the field and another for removing the mascles.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

12: Lillian atte Valeye - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in February of 2005, via the East

Or, in bend a fleur-de-lys inverted sable between a fleur-de-lys vert and a fleur-de-lys purpure, in chief three bells sable

Her name was registered 02/2005 (East).

Commenters were unanimous that this device was not in a period style; however, none asked that it be returned for that reason. There is a step from period practice for the use of a group of three charges of the same type using three tinctures:

Questions were raised regarding having...three roundels in three different tinctures. While were unable, in a quick look, to find an example of the same charge in three different tinctures, the Dictionary of British Armory, 2 shows the arms of Milo Fitzwalter of Glouster as Gules, two bends the upper Or and lower argent, making the use of the same change in three different tinctures only one weirdness [LoAR February 1998].

This precedent has since been reaffirmed [Timur al-Badawi, 07/2003, Artemisia].


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

13: Malka bint Daoud - New Name & New Device

Azure, a palm tree and in chief three mullets of six points one and two argent

Submitter desires a feminine name.
Meaning (spelling of the given name, meaning 'Malka daughter of David') most important.

Malka is a feminine given name derived from the common noun 'queen' [Alexander Beider, A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Names (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, Inc., 2001), s.n. Malke (pp. 536-7)]. A form of the name, <Malqua>, is found in southern France in 1365. A possibly similar name, <Malika> is found in Juliana de Luna, "Jewish Women's Names in an Arab Context: Names from the Geniza of Cairo" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/geniza.html). In addition, a <Malca di Elia Corcos> is found in Yehoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi, "Names of Jews in Rome In the 1550's" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/rome_names.html). The records used as a source for the latter article were written in Hebrew, with some Italian terms.

Robert Ignatius Burns, Jews in the notarial culture: Latinate wills in Mediterranean Spain, 1250-1350 (University of California Press, 1996, http://books.google.com/books?id=-iIQ_A9GQJwC, p. 8), states that Malka is not found in the Catalan documents (wills in Latin), although other names meaning 'queen' were.

Secondly, there is a Moroccan Jewish philosopher, <Judah ben Nissim ibn Malkah>, who lived in the latter half of the 13th century (Dan Cohn-Sherbok, Medieval Jewish philosophy: an introduction, Psychology Press, 1996, http://books.google.com/books?id=jO7OfURydycC, p. 119). As such, the name seems to have existed in some form, although it could not be determined if the name in this case was the same as the feminine given name (or if this name represented a matronym). A bit later, there is a <Malca/Reina> ("equivalent names in Hebrew and Spanish") who was the wife of Samuel Pallache, who died in 1616 (Mercedes García-Arenal, Gerard Albert Wiegers, A man of three worlds: Samuel Pallache, a Moroccan Jew in Catholic and Protestant Europe, JHU Press, 2003, http://books.google.com/books?id=QbZRl9DMIPMC, p. 12). It could not be confirmed if Malca and Reina were used interchangeably in the primary sources used to prepare that book.

Beider (ibid., pp. 16, 22-3) uses Malka as an example of loan translations, giving the corresponding French, Spanish, and Latin forms <Reine>, <Reina>, and <Regina>, respectively. The mention of French and Spanish forms seems to imply that this practice occurred in a Sephardic as well as Ashkenazic context. <Regina> 'queen' is found in Juliana de Luna, "Jews in Catalonia: 1250-1400" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/catalan-jews/). The names in this article were compiled from Burns (op. cit). As the corresponding wills in Hebrew have not survived, it could not be determined if this instance represented a loan translation or calque of a Hebrew Malka. Considering the southern French instance of <Malqua>, the fact that Catalan and Occitan are related languages, and there was an influx of Occitan names due to mass migrations of Jews from Occitania into Aragon and Catalonia in 1291, 1306, and 1322 (per Burns' book), we gave the submitter the benefit of the doubt that the Hebrew name could have existed in Spain.

bint is the Arabic particle meaning `daughter'. It is found in Da'ud ibn Auda, "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm), as is the formation of patronyms in Arabic.

Daoud is a form of David, which is in turn found in Julie Stampnitsky, "Medieval Jewish Names Research" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/masc/david.html). This article states that it appears in Hebrew accounts in 880-8 and 920-40 in Iraq, 1096 in Germany, and 1171 in France, both as a given name and in patronyms. The name is also used in Arabic contexts. In the transliteration notes in Da'ud's article (op. cit.), he stated that he found the submitted spelling while researching his name, so it is presumably a valid spelling in period. Both David and Dā'ūd appear in Yohoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi, "Jewish Names in the World of Medieval Islam" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/jews_in_cairo/cairo_men.html). Dā'ūd is also found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "Jewish Names in Ottoman Court Records (16th C Jerusalem)" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Jerusalem/Men.shtml). In Juliana's article "Jews in Catalonia: 1250-1400" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/catalan-jews/CatalanJews-given-men.html#alpha), the name is found as David, Davi, and Davui (in Latin).

Assistance finding the submitted spelling in Spain in our period is appreciated; however, precedent states that, "[i]n the cases of languages that do not use Roman alphabets (such as Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Hebrew, etc.) we register transliterations using period transliteration systems and modern standard transliterations systems" [Avraham Harofeh, 10/2003 A-Atlantia]. The submitted spelling is found ("Saidna ben Daoud") in the 12th century itinerary by Benjamin of Tudela (from Navarre), purportedly transliterated from Arabic [Jacob Rader Marcus and Marc Saperstein in The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315-1791, Hebrew Union College Press, 1999; http://books.google.com/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC, p. 210)]. At the least, this shows that Daoud is a valid modern transliteration, which should be registerable under that precedent.

The submitter's second choice is Malka bat Daoud, where bat is the Sephardic transliteration of the Hebrew beth-tav, `daughter'. This particle is found in Julie Stampnitsky, "Medieval Jewish Naming Research: Glossary for Titles and Bynames" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/titles.html). In Juliana de Luna's article (op. cit.), the abbreviation b. was used, so it is not know if bint or bat was intended. It is also stated that the names were mostly Arabic, although they were rendered in Hebrew letters. As such, the use of either is plausible.

Yohoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi, "Jewish Names in the World of Medieval Islam" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/jews_in_cairo/index.html) also states that, "[i]n the Islamic world Jews would have existed in a linguistic dualism moving back and forth between Arabic and Hebrew, and in some cases Spanish and Aramaic. The names that they gave their children reflect this and represent a mix of forms. Jews appear with classical Hebrew biblical names in both the Hebrew form, and with Arabic cognates of those names which appear to be used interchangeably. Many Jews also appear in the documents with classical Arabic names. The patterns of Arabic names especially among women appear to vary somewhat between Jews and Muslims." Such mixing of Hebrew and Arabic particles also occurred for men, per Yohoshua's article "Names of Jews in Rome In the 1550's" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/rome_article.html); whether this was done for women in this time/place is not discussed in this article.

The submitter cares most about the spelling of the given name, as it is her Hebrew name (although not her legal name). If necessary, we can contact the submitter to get documentation that it is her Hebrew name. If such documentation is available, the name can be registered using the legal name allowance [Liora eishet Yehoshua, 04/2001, Middle] and [Levia Rhys Llaw Wen, 09/1992].


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

14: Marquesa de Carvalhal - New Name & New Device

Azure, in pale an owl displayed sustaining an open book proper, on a chief engrailed argent three annulets of leaves vert

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Language (Iberian) most important.
Culture (Iberian) most important.

The name was submitted as Markesa de Carvalhal, but was changed to better match the documentation (see below).

Markesa is a feminine form of the given name Marko, formed by adding the suffix -(i)ssa. It is found as a header form in Karen Larsdatter, "Basque Onomastics of the Eighth to Sixteenth Centuries" (http://www.larsdatter.com/basque/1mn.htm). The introduction to the section with the given names (http://www.larsdatter.com/basque/appendix1.htm) states that the header forms are modern Basque spellings. The attested spellings are <Marchesa> (1211), <Marquesa> (1211, 13th-14th centuries), and <Marquessa> (1366). <Marquesa> is also found with an incidence of two in in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Portuguese Names from Lisbon, 1565" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/fem1565.html).

Assistance finding the submitted spelling is appreciated. If the name must be changed, the submitter will accept the attested spelling <Marquesa>.

de Carvalhal 'from a grove or forest of oaks' is a Portuguese toponymic surname found with an incidence of one (ibid., http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/sur1565.html).

Eastern Crown could not find a precedent on the combination of Basque and Portuguese, although Portuguese and Spanish can be combined with no step from period practice [Lianor de Najera, 02/2009].

As the submitted spelling of the given name is a modern spelling, and evidence of the submitted spelling in period could not be found, the name was changed to the attested spelling <Marquesa>.

The device was redrawn with the submitter's permission because the owl had an extra wing in the original emblazon.

The use of a bird, other than an eagle, displayed is a step from period practice.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

15: Michael Leopold - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in February of 2011, via the East

Sable, a moose head cabossed argent and a bordure barry wavy azure and argent

His name is on the Nov. 30, 2010 Letter of Intent (East), and was decided at the February 2011 meeting. An earlier device submission was returned in kingdom.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

16: Sera filia Josce - Resub Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Language (Jewish woman in Angevin England) most important.
Culture (Jewish woman in Angevin England) most important.

The original submission, Sera bat Josce, was returned on the 06/2010 LoAR (East):

The byname bat Josce mixes Hebrew bat and the Latinized English Josce, a form of the Hebrew Yosef. While both elements are used in Jewish names, they cannot be combined for two reasons. First, English Jews used bas rather than bat for the form meaning "daughter (of)." While bat was used by Sephardic Jews in other parts of Europe, it cannot be combined in a single name phrase with Josce, a form found only in England. Second, Josce is an Anglicized form, which does not seem to have been used even in England with Hebrew forms like bas.

A completely (English context) Hebrew form of this byname is bas Yosef, while an English form of this byname is filia Josce. In addition, the English context Jewish name Sera could be combined with the Sephardic Hebrew byname bat Yosef.

Any of these bynames would be registerable in combination with Sera. However, as changing the byname to any of these would be a major change (as each changes the language of one word in the byname), this name must be returned.

The submitter would like to follow Laurel's suggestion, and register the English form of the byname.

Sera is listed as a variant of the feminine name Sarah in Eleazar ha-Levi: "Jewish Naming Convention in Angevin England" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/jewish.html).

Josce is listed as a variant of the masculine name Joseph (ibid.).

The cited article also indicates that fil was used as the patronymic particle for 'son' (filius) or 'daughter' (filia).


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

17: Shely Magennis - New Name

Shely is found s.n. Síle in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "Names Found in Anglicized Irish Documents" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnglicizedIrish/Feminine.shtml), s.n. Shillie.

Magennis is a surname found dated 1551, 1561, 1564, and 1573 in Calendar of the State Papers Relating to Ireland, of the Reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth (State Paper Department of H.M. Public Record Office, Vol. 1, http://books.google.com/books?id=e1gMAQAAIAAJ, pp. 118-9, 179, 232, 505). Dated examples of the given name in the cited article are <Shely Darcy (1600)>, <Shely ny Madden, his wife> (1585), and <Shely nyen Teane> (1600). The surname also is found in 1642 in 'House of Lords Journal, vol. 5: 27 September 1642', Journal of the House of Lords: vol. 5: 1642-1643 (1767-1830), pp. 373-5 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=34911).

The name pattern <given name + family name> is found in also found in Mari's article (op. cit., http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnglicizedIrish/).

If the surname is English, and not Anglicized Irish as had been supposed, Anglicized Irish and English can be combined without a step from period practice [Meave Cunningham, 09/2010, An Tir].


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

18: Symon Fitz Gilbert - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in May of 2004, via the East

Gules crucilly moline Or

His name and device, Gules, a boar's head erased close and on a chief Or three mullets gules, were registered 05/2004 (East).

The device should be clear of Katerine Bontemps (05/2007, Ansteorra), Gules, in bend two crosses moline disjointed Or, with one CD for changing the number of crosses, and another for changing from a cross moline to one disjointed. (A cross moline disjointed can be blazoned as a cross moline charged with a cross throughout [Catlyn Kinnesswood, 10/2005, Caid].)


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

19: Theodora Bryennissa - New Name & New Device

Argent, a tassel and a chief engrailed azure, a bordure sable

Theodora is a feminine given name found in Bardas Xiphias, "Common Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the 6th and 7th Centuries" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/byzantine/PLRE_fem_names.html). The name also appears in Bardas Xiphias, "Common Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/byzantine/fem_given_names.html), dated 1059.

Bryennissa is the feminine form of the family name Bryennios, which is dated 717 in Bardas Xiphias, "Common Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/byzantine/family_names.html#family_names.html).

The name pattern <given name + feminized form of father or husband's given name> and feminization of family names are also discussed in this article (ibid., http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/byzantine/structures.html#feminine_names and http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/byzantine/feminizing.html). The feminization of this family name is an exception to the normal rules, and is discussed in the text under the table. The family name Bryennios is also found in the Prosopography of the Byzantine World (PBW) Database (http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/pbw/apps/), dated 1063. The PBW's seals database also contains a seal dated 1075-1085 (1080), with "Mother of God. / Theotokos aid Maria Bryennissa, magistrissa" written in Greek (http://linnet.cch.kcl.ac.uk:8080/seals/seals_boulloterion.jsp?bKey=161).


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

20: Wilham de Broc - Resub Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in November of 2010, via the East

Quarterly per fess wavy azure and argent, in bend sinister two cats rampant azure

His name was registered and his device, Quarterly per fess wavy azure and argent, in bend sinister two ounces rampant to sinister azure, was returned on the 11/2010 LOAR (East):

This device was withdrawn by the submitter. Were it not withdrawn, it would be returned for conflict with the device of Alisaunder le Lyon, Argent, two lions in fess sejant erect contourny azure. There is a CD for the field. There is not a CD for the forced change of position of Wilham's cats. There is also not a CD for the difference between rampant and sejant erect.

The submitter has changed the orientation of the ounces in order to clear the conflict.


This item was on the 06-2011 LoAR

21: Wulfgang Gruenwald - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Client requests authenticity for 12th century German.
Language (unspecified) most important.
Culture (unspecified) most important.
Meaning (spelling) most important.

Wulfgang was initially documented from a Victorian history in which names appeared to have been modernized, so this source was discounted and has not been included in the packet. The submitted spelling of the given name could not be found. However, Wolfgang was found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/german/nurnberg1497.html), with seven instances. Elmet noted that Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Wulf(f) has <Wulf filius Wolberti> (1286) and <Wulf Pudwills> (1435), which may support the submitted spelling, especially as Wulf is the Lower German form of Wolf [ibid., s.nn. Wolf(f) and Wulf(f)].

The submitted spelling of Gruenwald was not attested. However, the following commentary was included in a prior registration:

Submitted as Elspeth von dem Grüwalde, the submitter requested an authentic German name. The byname von dem Grünewalde was documented on the LoI as a constructed byname, but no dated bynames using the spelling grün- were provided. Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Grunewald dates Hinrich Grunewalt to 1322 and s.n. Wald(e) dates Wernher zu dem Walde to 1361. Margaret Makafee provides 14th century examples of the spelling gruen- from http://www.monisterium.net, including Ruedger der Piper von Gruenwerch 1319, Vlreichen von Gruenwurch 1340, and Anna die Gruenpekchinn in 1394. Together, these examples supports [sic] Gruenwalde as a plausible 14th C form of the byname. We have changed the name to Elspeth_Gruenwalde to meet her request for authenticity [Elspeth Gruenwalde, 08/2008, Calontir]

It was also noted that Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Place Names from a 16th C Czech Register" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/modernperiod.html) has <Gruen> as one of the period spellings of the modern <Grün bei Krugsreuth>. The same article includes the suffixes -wald and -waldt, e.g., <Schönwald> and <Schlackenwaldt>. As such, the submitted spelling of the locative (without the terminal -e) was thought to be plausible.

It was not determined if this name was in a particular dialect or combination of dialects.

We appeal to the College for assistance in addressing the authenticity request, especially as the submitted noted that the spelling was most important.


[Bahlow/Gentry] Bahlow, Hans. Deutsches Nameslexikon. (transl. Edda Gentry).

[NCMJ] Solveig Throndardottir. Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan.


OSCAR counts 10 New Names, 1 New Name Change, 9 New Devices and 3 New Badges. These 23 items are chargeable, Laurel should receive $69 for them. OSCAR counts 2 Resub Names and 3 Resub Devices. These 5 items are not chargeable. OSCAR counts 1 Change of Designator. This item may or may not require payment. There are a total of 29 items submitted on this letter.

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