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East LoI dated 2010-11-30

Unto Olwyn Laurel, Istvan Wreath, Juliana Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Ása in Svarta, Blue Tyger Herald and Lillia de Vaux, Eastern Crown Herald.



"Intermediate changes" are changes such as the addition or deletion of elements like 'de' and 'the', or changes in language, as long as the effect of the changes is small. Secondly, for the Pennsic submissions, common sources that are readily available, such as articles from the Academy of Saint Gabriel website, were granted a special no-photocopy status, even if they are not listed in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook.



This letter includes submissions received from Heralds Point through the end of Pennsic.

This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

1: Agatha Wanderer - New Name & New Device

Or, a schnecke issuant from sinister chief purpure

No major changes.

Agatha is found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from 1495" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/german1495.html).

Wanderer is found in Aryanhwy's "German Names from Nürnberg 1497" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/surnamesnurnn-z.html).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

2: Akechi Daitarou Katsuhiro - New Name & New Badge

(Fieldless) Three triangles one and two conjoined at the points within and conjoined to an annulet azure

Client requests authenticity for Semgoku/Mumoyama sumo wrestler.

Akechi is found on p. 315 of NCMJ.

Daitarou is a yobina constructed from <Daiji> 'big' (Chinese reading), dated 1126 (ibid., p. 101, s.n. Big) and <-tarou> 'first son', found in the following yobina:

<Tarou> - 1600 - pp. 211, 373, s.nn. First Son and Ta

<Genkutarou> - 1600 - pp. 211, 215, 370, 200, s.nn. First Son, Nine, Ge, Boy/Young Scholar

<Kentarou> - 1600 - pp. 211 and 243, s.n. First Son

<Kutarou> - 1568 - pp. 211 and 371, s.nn. First Son and Ku

<Kentarou> - 1600, pp. 211, 243, s.n. First Son

<Matatarou> - 1600 and 1392 - pp. 211 and 372, s.nn. First Son and Ma

<Yatarou> - 1438 and 1428 - pp. 211, 254, 373, s.nn. First Son, Nostalgic (2nd listing), and Ya

<Yotarou> - 1600 - pp. 186, 211, 373, s.nn. Team Up, First Son, and Yo

<Yogotarou> - 1600 - pp. 186, 211, 214, 373, s.nn. Team Up, First Son, Five, and Yo

<Yo'ichitarou> - 1183 and 1147 - pp. 211, 212, 373, s.nn. First Son, One, and Yo.

Katsuhiro is a constructed nanori; <katsu-> is a prototheme meaning 'victory' (p. 257, ibid.), and <-hiro> is a deuterotheme meaning 'spread out' (p. 101, ibid.). The construction of Katsuhiro follows the pattern of other nanori: Katsumoto, Katsutoshi, Katsutoyo, etc. (ibid., p. 257), and Nobuhiro, Norihiro, and Sadahiro, etc. (ibid., p. 101).

The structure family name + yobina + nanori is found in this period (ibid.)


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

3: Aleksei Gensel - New Name & New Device

Argent, on a cross between four geese displayed azure a goose displayed argent

The name was submitted as Alexi Gensel, but was changed to match the available documentation (see below).

Alexi was supposedly documented as a Russian masculine given name in Wickenden, "A Dictionary of Period Russian Names" (http://heraldry.sca.org/paul/a.html). Upon checking that source, s.n. Aleksei, the attested forms are <Alexe> (1448), <Allexe> (1448), <Aleksei> (1449), <Al'ksii> (15th century), and <Aleksii> (1609).

<Aleksy> is the expected masculine form of the feminine Polish name <Alexycha>, dated 1551 [Abramowicz et al, Słownik Historycznych Nazw Osobowych Białostocczyzyny (XV-XVII w.), vol. 1. Istytut Filologii Wschodniosłowiańskiej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku, Białystok, 1997]. Walraven's article "Polish Given Names in Nazwiska Polaków" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/walraven/polish/ has an entry for "Aleksy, Leksy, Oleksy (Alexius) [Alexis]", with the caveat that the forms in parentheses are Latin/Greek/German forms given by Rymut, and the forms in brackets are "familiar forms" added to aid the reader.

The given name was changed to the attested form <Aleksei> (1449) to better match the documentation, and to retain the language of the submitted form.

Gensel is the submitter's legal surname as attested by Eastern Crown from his driver's license. The submitter also noted that the name is German for 'little goose'. Alexander Beider, A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation, and Migrations (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, Inc., 2001), s.n. Gans, states that Gans is derived from the "(Judeo-) German common noun meaning goose, cf. Middle High German gans, modern German Gans, Yiddish gandz." A derived form in the same entry is <Gänsl>, which is found in a German record in Hungary, dated 1564. This instance is followed by the likely corresponding Yiddish form (i.e., phonetic form), <Gensl>. Another derived form, <Gensslein> from German records from Bavaria, 1490, is also listed, along with the phonetic form <Genslayn> (ibid.). Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Ganser, also includes <Henne Gensfleisch ['goose flesh'] zum Gutenberg>, 1400. Thus, Gans- and the submitted Gens- seem to be equally acceptable in period.

The combination of Russian and German is a step from period practice [Tatiana Heinemann, 08/2001]. Alternatively, if the submitted spelling of the given name could be found in Polish, the combination with German is also a step from period practice [Iwan Berenthaler, 03/2010].

There is a step from period practice for the use of a bird, other than an eagle, displayed.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

4: Anna Tailor - New Name Change & New Device Change

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in February of 2011, via the East.

Or, on a closed book palewise gules between three roses proper a spool of thread Or

Old Item: Ela Bathory, to be released.
Old Item: Azure semy-de-lys, an open book argent, to be released.
Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Meaning (Unspecified) most important.

Her current name and device were registered in 03/2008 via the East.

Anna is found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "Feminine Given Names in Chesham, 1538-1600/1" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Chesham/feminine.shtml), dated 1586.

Tailor is found in Bardsley, s.n. Taylor, dated 1593.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

5: Anna Tailor - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in February of 2011, via the East

(Fieldless) On a closed book palewise gules, three roses Or seeded gules barbed vert


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

6: Azumi Nariko - New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Language (Early Kamakura Japanese) most important.
Culture (Early Kamakura Japanese) most important.

Azumi is an uji name described as an ancient clan in NCMJ, s.n. Azumi (p. 390).

Nariko is found as a given name on p. 240 (ibid.), dated 1183.

According to Solveig (who was consulting herald), uji name + given name is a typical name construction for females of the early Kamakura period.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

7: Benoît Théophile - New Name & New Device

Vert, an hourglass and on a chief embattled argent three roses vert

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Sound (French or Greek pronunciation of byname is ok) most important.

Benoit is the name of a saint who lived 480-543. This spelling is found in a placename dated to 1308 (St Benoit) in D&R, s.n. St-Benezet. Colm Dubh, "An Index to Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/paris.html#B) lists the masculine names <Benéoit>, <Beneoit> <Beneoite>, <Benoet>, and <Benoiet>, and the feminine name <Benoite>. <Benoit> also appears in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423, & 1438" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/french/paris1423.html). <Benoist> appears in Aryanhwy's "Names from Choisy, France, 1475-1478" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/choisy.html).

Theophile is a header form in Morlet Dictionnaire, which states that it is a baptismal name and infrequent patronym, representing the Greek name <Theophilos>, and the Latin form <Theophilus>. The submitted given name is an expected vernacular form. Theophilus Presbyter was the author of De diversis artibus (On Divers Arts), c. 1125. (http://books.google.com/books?id=MMiLTJqvYnYC). A "Théophile Sarrazin, Sieur de Salneuve, secretary of the Prince of Conde, a refugee at Geneva" is found as a footnote in 'Elizabeth: August 1587, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 1: 1586-1588 (1927), pp. 355-367 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74791). This explanation is to the mention of "Sarazin" in an entry dated Aug. 18/28, 1587. There is also a French poet, Théophile de Viau, c. 1590-1626. A 1631 edition of Les Oevvres dv sievr Theophile (The Works of Lord Theophile) gives his name as Theophile (http://books.google.com/books?id=B8wqtIlSEaIC).

The byname is intended as an inherited surname derived from an unmarked patronym. An example of this pattern is <Thommas Godefray>, found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Names from Chastenay, 1448-1457" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/chastenay.html).

The circumflex appears in French typefaces in the 16th century (Hendrik D. L. Vervliet, The palaeotypography of the French Renaissance: selected papers on sixteenth-century typefaces, Volume 1, pp. 118 and 192, http://books.google.com/books?id=6sidSDlif48C&pg=PA118 ). Use of the acute accent is found in names like <André> and <Hervé> in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Names Found in Commercial Documents from Bordeaux, 1470-1520" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/bordeaux.html). As such, the accents in the name were retained.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

8: Beorn bjarnylr Ulfsson - New Name & New Device

Sable, a bear sejant erect maintaining over his shoulder a mace and on a chief embattled argent three spears inverted sable

No major changes.
Meaning (Unspecified) most important.

The name was submitted as Beorn Bjarnylr Ulfsson, but was corrected in kingdom to match the documentation (see below).

Beorn is found in "Jeuson, Scandinavian Names", s.n. Bjorn (pp. 54-5), with this spelling dated 1163. It was thought that the consulting herald intended this as Fellows Jenson, Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. SMP (http://www.sofi.se/5187), s.n. Biorn includes Beorn, dated 1200.

bjarnylr is a descriptive byname meaning 'bear-warmth', found in Geirr Bassi, p. 20. The capitalization of this element was corrected.

Ulfsson is a patronymic byname formed according to p. 17 from the masculine given name <Ulfr> (p. 15, ibid.).

The submitter will accept intermediate and minor changes, specifically the spelling of the descriptive bjarnylr. The desired meaning is 'Beorn son of Ulf', with the Beorn spelling retained.

Whether it is appropriate to use the name pattern given name + nickname + patronym was not addressed by commenters in kingdom. It was also unclear if changes needed to be (or could be) made to make it linguistically compatible.

The name is clear of Bjorn Ulfsson (10/1997, An Tir), by addition of the descriptive byname.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

9: Ceolwenne of Endeweard - New Name Change

OSCAR NOTE: 'Old Item' should contain the former primary name. The form that is there is not a registered name.

Old Item: Leofleda of Endeweard, to be released.
Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Sound (Spelling) most important.
Language (Unspecified) most important.
Culture (Unspecified) most important.

Her name was submitted as Ceolwenne of Endewearde, but was changed in kingdom to correct the spelling of the branch name. Her currently registered name is on 06/2010 LOAR (East).

Ceolwenne is from Marieke van de Dal, "Anglo-Saxon Women's Names from Royal Charters" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/marieke/anglosaxonfem/), with the article citing it as "Ceolwenne S-1513, c. 900; English".

Endeweard is a locative based on the branch name, Endeweard, Shire of (01/1987, East).

The submission form notes that the submitter desires Anglo-Saxon culture, and that she focused on names noted as being English rather than Latin.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

10: Conchobar mac Mainchín Ui Laoidhigh - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in July of 2006, via the East

Quarterly gules and azure, two stags combattant and a bordure embattled argent

His name was registered 07/2006 via the East.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

11: Elaine Howys of Morningthorpe - New Name

No major changes.
Language (French, 1500s spelling of Elaine (or Eliane)) most important.
Culture (French, 1500s spelling of Elaine (or Eliane)) most important.

Elaine is found in Withycombe, s.n. Elaine, as the OFr form of Helen, which appears in chansons de geste. The submitter would prefer the name Eliane, but it was not found during the initial consultation or by kingdom commenters.

Howys is a surname found in Hitching & Hitching, 1601.

Morningthorpe is a parish in South Norfolk, according to Ekwall, s.n. Thorpe. The submitted spelling is extrapolated from <Moryngthorpe>, found in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (http://books.google.com/books?id=9_5aAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA195, p. 195), dated 1517. The i/y switch is unremarkable, so the submitted spelling was considered to be plausible for late period England.

Her husband, Robert Howys of Morningthorpe (also on this letter) wanted a spelling of the byname that was appropriate for 1500s England. If his name is changed, she wants to change her byname to match. The submitter is aware that her name is a combination of French and English, and that the submitted spelling of Howys could not be found in her desired century.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

12: Elizabeth Pleyledere - New Name & New Device

Argent, a phoenix gules and on a chief sable a roundel between an increscent and a decrescent argent

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Sound ('Ellizz-uh-beth Play-luh-deer') most important.

Elizabeth is found in in Talan Gwynek, "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/reaneyAG.html), dated 1279, and 1340-1450.

Pleyledere can be found in Jeanne Marie Lacroix, "Misplaced Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/misplaced names.html), dated 1327.

A concern was raised in commentary about the identifiability of the crescents, but it was felt that they were similar in shape to some period examples, even if they weren't as rounded as the standard SCA depiction.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

13: Erik le Haubergier - New Name & New Device

Sable, a cross within a bordure and in canton a compass rose argent

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.

Erik is the submitter's legal given name, as attested by Brunissende and Wirdo.

le Haubergier is dated 1201 in Jeanne-Marie Lacroix, "Misplaced Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/misplacednamesbyname.htm), s.n. Habbeshaui.

The submitter allows only the minimum changes necessary to make the name more authentic. As the submitter did not provide any information concerning the desired culture or time period, the name was not altered.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

14: Fionan Mac Leoid of Armagh - New Name & New Device

Per chevron azure and gules, a stag's massacre between three oak leaves argent

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language ('is willing to have changes for language uniformity') most important.
Culture ('is willing to have changes for language uniformity') most important.

The name was submitted as Fiónán MacLeóid of Armagh.

Fíonán is a masculine given name found in OC&M, s.n. Fínán as the name of 11 early saints. The name was found in The Annals of the Four Masters, CELT archive, M659.3 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005A/text049.html and http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005A/index.html): "Fionán mac Rimedha, epscop, d'écc." ("Finan, son of Rimeadh, a bishop, died.") The given name was also found in a 19th century translation of a 1630 matryology of Irish saints (The martyrology of Donegal, http://books.google.com/books?id=clR5GAXu0V8C), showing that the name should be eligible for the saint's name allowance.

MacLeóid is a header form in Woulfe, which states that "some of them settled in Ireland in the 16th century". It is also found in Black, s.n. MacLeod. Mac Leoid is found in the Annals of the Four Masters, CELT archive, M1595.15 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005F.html and http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005F/index.html): "Tánaicc Ó Domhnaill iaramh co Dún na n-Gall, & baí i h-isuidhe go meadhon August. Ro h-aisneidheadh do-sidhe tasccar Albanach do theacht i t-tír i l-Loch Febhail .i. Mac Leoid na h-Ara" ("O'Donnell then went to Donegal, and remained there till the middle of August. He was informed that a number of Scots had landed at Lough Foyle, with their chief, Mac Leod of Ara..."),

of Armagh is a locative byname based on Room, s.n. Armagh lists Armagh and gives the modern Gaelic form as <Ard Macha>. The Fiants of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth includes <Alexander Pluncket, of Armagh", dated 1602, record 6622 (5412). A URL was not provided by Heralds Point.

The submitted name was a combination of Gaelic, Scots, and English. RfS III.1, Name Grammar and Syntax, states that a name should not combine more than three languages. Although this didn't exceed that, there was a step from period practice for the combination of Gaelic and English [Ian MacHenrik, 10/1999], and a second for combining Gaelic and Scots [Elspeth O'Shea, 02/2000]. There is no step from period practice for combining English and Scots [Michael Duncan of Hadley, 04/2004].

The submitter explicitly allowed changes in language (via email), so the patronym was changed to the form in the Annals to eliminate one SFPP. As the various sources were inconsistent in which letters were accented, kingdom couldn't tell which version was right. As such, all accents were dropped to make it consistent.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

15: Fortune Sancte Keyne - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in April of 2010, via the East

Counter-ermine, a wheel Or within a bordure ermine

Her name was registered 04/2010 via the East.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

16: Francesco Gaetano Greco d'Edessa - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in June of 2004, via the East

Sable, an Eastern Orthodox cross and in chief a compass star Or

His name was registered 06/2004 via the East. His device, Azure, a Latin cross flory and on a chief Or, three compass stars gules, was registered 08/1993 (East). He also has four badges, one of which is being transferred to someone else (East Kingdom 31-Oct-2010 External Letter). If this badge is registered, he will have the five pieces of armory after that transfer. The submission was initially marked as a kingdom resubmission, but this could not be verified. As such, the forms have been revised to make this a new submission, and the submitter has paid accordingly.

There is a step from period practice for the use of a compass star.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

17: Gareth Grey de Wilton - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in February of 2005, via the East

(Fieldless) On a tower argent within and conjoined to an annulet Or a cross clechy gules

His name was registered in 02/2005, and a device, Per bend embattled argent and gules, a cross clechy gules, was registered 09/2007 via the East.

Commenters noted that the design is barely conjoined; however, it was felt that there was really no way to conjoin them further.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

18: Gwenhwyvar uxor Edwini - New Name & New Device

Argent, a fox salient gules charged with an open book Or and on a chief gules an open book between two foxes passant respectant argent

No major changes.
Meaning ('Gwenhwyvar wife of Edwin') most important.

Gwenhwyvar is found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names (in English Contexts)" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh16.html).

uxor is Latin for 'wife', found in Tangwystyl's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh13.html). The term is found generically in legal documents in '1541 London Subsidy roll: Billingsgate Ward', Two Tudor subsidy rolls for the city of London: 1541 and 1582 (1993), pp. 17-21. (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36098). Examples are <uxor Smythe>, <uxor Russell>, <Uxor Collynge>, etc. It was also found in Latin documents, 20 Elizabeth I, with <Elinora Brome uxor Christoferi Brome>, found in 'Indictments and other matters concering Catholic priests: Temp. Elizabeth I and James I', Middlesex county records: Volume 2: 1603-25 (1887), pp. 188-209 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=66002).

Edwini is the expected Latinized genitive form of Edwin (ibid.). Edwin is found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "English Given Names from 16th and Early 17th C Marriage Records" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/parishes/parishes.html), s.n. Edwin, dated 1609.

There is no step from period practice for the combination of Welsh and English [Cover Letter, 08/1999]. It was thought that Latinized English would be similarly compatible with Welsh, or at most just a single step from period practice, especially since the Latin uxor is found in both Welsh and English contexts. The submitter will allow intermediate changes.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

19: Hafnar-Ulfr - New Name & New Device

Azure, a wolf rampant between three fireballs argent

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Meaning (prefers to keep meaning of given name) most important.

The name was submitted as Hafnar Ulfr, but was changed to match the available documentation (see below).

Hafnar- 'haven' is a descriptive byname found in Geirr Bassi, p. 22. The hyphen was added to the name.

Ulfr 'wolf' is found on p. 15 (ibid.)

Despite the appearance of a single name, this name consists of a prepended byname and a given name (ibid., p. 18). This formation is not uncommon in Old Norse [Yxna-Sigarr, 02/2005], so is registerable.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

20: Hildemar von Regensburg - New Name & New Device

Sable, a tyger sejant regardant between three caltrops, a bordure embattled argent

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Meaning ('Hildemar from Regensburg') most important.

Although the submitter is female, she desires a male name. This was verified by Eastern Crown.

Hildemar is the name of a saint who was the Benedictine bishop of Beauvais, France (consecrated in 821). It is also the name of a priest from Tournai, Belgium, who was a chaplain in the court of William the Conqueror in England. <Hildemarus> is a masculine given name found in Morlet Vol I (p. 130), citing Carolingian inventories from the 9th century. Other spellings (ibid.) are <Hildimar> (a. 818), <Hildamarus> (9th C), <Hildemirus> (9th C), <Hiltimar> (9th C), <Hildmarus> (a. 788), <Eldemarus> (a. 870 to 993), and <Hilmarus> (a. 822). (The approximate dates of Morlet's sources were checked online against the original citations, if possible.) <Hildemarus> is also found in Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der Herzöge von Braunschweig und Lüneburg und ihrer lande (H. Sudendorg, ed.; 1859; http://books.google.com/books?id=fjwOAAAAQAAJ), in the names of <hildemarus cluuere> (1304), <Hildemarus de Stenberghe> (1344-65), and <Hildemarus de oberghe> (1344-65). These are from Latin texts (not normalized) from Lower Saxony, and the names appear on pp. 104 (201 of PDF), 41 (596), and 43 (598), respectively. The submitted spelling seems to be a reasonable vernacular form of the name. Lastly, Hildemar is found in Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Hil(l)mer , which states that it was a "popular personal name in LGer-Fris area". Dated spellings are <Hillemarus filius Hildemari> (1294), <Hildemers> (1374, surname), and <Hilmer> (1350, surname).

von is the locative preposition in German, an example of which is <von Bern>, found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from Rottweil, Baden-Württemberg, 1441" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/rottweilsur.html).

Regensburg is found in Brechenmacher, s.n. Regensburger, dated 1322. Bahlow Deutschlands Geographie, s.n. Regensburg, gives the spelling <Reganesdorf> (870), as well as <Ratisbona> (undated) under the entry for Ratingen. The spellings <Regenspurg>, <Regenspurgk>, and <Regenspurk> are found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Place Names from a 16th C Czech Register" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/germanplace.html). This register is written in a North Bavarian dialect (a form of High German).

The submitter is willing to accept French or German to get the desired meaning. Note that the combination of Frankish with either French [Lillia de Vaux, 10/2006] or German [Uadalrich von Sachsenhusen, 04/2006] is a step from period practice. Similarly, the combination of Low and High German is a step from period practice [Heinrich Thies, 11/2007]. The submitter was contacted for conditional permission of major changes in case a Frankish form of the byname needed to be used to avoid a second SFPP (prior to the German instances of the given name being found). The submitter clarified that she wants "a period-appropriate name for 1450 that translates to 'Hildemar from Regensburg'". She would like to keep the given name, but is not tied to the Regensburg spelling if it must be changed. She has stated, for example, that she would accept the <Regenspurg> spelling found above.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

21: Ian Douglas - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in March of 2005, via the East

Papellony azure and argent, a melusine vert and on a chief argent a compass rose vert

His name was registered 05/2005 via the East.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

22: Johannes filius Nicholai - New Name & New Device

Sable, a chevron Or between three Latin crosses one and two and a pheon argent

Meaning (Unspecified) most important.

Johannes is found in Talan Gwynek, "Given Names from Early 13th Century England" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/eng13/eng13m.html), s.n. John.

filius is the Latin for 'son'.

Nicholai is the genitive form of Nicholas found in R&W, s.n. Nicholas, with <Waleram Nicholai>, 98 cur (sf) [1198]. It is also found in Bardsley, s.n. Nicholas, with <John fil. Nicholai> dated 1273. <filius Nicholai> is also found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "An Index to the 1332 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Lincolnshire, England" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/LincLSR/BynN.html).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

23: Katherine de Staverton - New Alternate Name

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in June of 2006, via the East

Judith bas Rabbi Mendel

No changes.

Her name was submitted as Judith bat Rabbi Mendel. It was changed with the submitter's permission (see below). Her primary name was registered 06/2006, and a device, Azure, a bend engrailed between a dove volant and a cat sejant guardant argent, in 01/2007, both via the East.

Judith is documented from Eleazar ha-Levi, "Jewish Naming Convention in Angevin England" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/jewish.html). Judith is a popular Biblical name (Genesis 26:34 and the Book of Judith) in Germany according to Beider, A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation, and Migrations (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, Inc., 2001), s.n. Yudes. It is dated 1147 in Würtzburg and before 1342 in Nürnberg (both German transcriptions from Hebrew), and it is noted that the Hebrew form was common in the Rhineland in 1096, but unknown in southern Germany in 1298. Christian use of the submitted spelling in German records was dated 1375, <Juditt> in German in 1412, and <Judyt/Judit> in Czech in 1546. Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Judith notes that it is used as a popular literary name as early as the 12th century.

bat/bas is the patronymic particle beth-tav meaning 'daughter [of]', found in Julie Stampnitsky, "Medieval Jewish Names Research: Glossary for Titles and Bynames" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/titles.html). The former is the Sephardic pronunciation, and the latter is the Ashkenazic.

Rabbi 'teacher, master, magister' is found in Eleazar's article cited above. The titles/bynames glossary cited above says it's for someone ordained. The use of a title like Rabbi in Jewish names is found in Julie Stampnitzky, "Names from Hebrew Chronicles of the 10th to 13th Centuries" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/crusades.html), with German example, <Shmuel b[en] Rabbi Avraham haLevi> found in the 13th century (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/masc/avraham.html, s.n. Avraham). Another example, <Yoel b[en] Rabbi Yitzchak>, was found in Germany in the 12th century (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/acrostic.html). It was considered plausible that women's name could have also used the title in patronymic bynames.

Mendel is found as a given name in Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Mendel, dated 1365, 1381, and 1414. Mendel is also found in Beider, s.n. Man, as a hypocoristic form. The introduction for the name mentions a <Manoach Mendl> found in a 15th century Hebrew source, and notes that <Mendl> was likely a kinnui, or vernacular name. It is sometimes considered the kinnui for Zacharia and Gershon (c.f. Skharye and Gershn). The earliest citations for the Hebrew form were dated 1349 in Nürnberg and Prague (the latter transliterated as <Mendeln>). Hebrew instances were also found in Prague in 1580 and 1615-1724. The submitted spelling is found in Swabia and Frankfurt (German, undated), in Vienna (German) in 1381, in Moravia (German) in 1396, in Hungary (Latin) in 1474-1527, in Brandenburg (German) in 1509, in Great Poland (Latin) in 1519, in Alsace (German) in 1531, and in Lwów (Polish) in 1606.

Per precedent, modern standard transliterations are registerable for languages like Hebrew [Avraham Harofeh, 10/2003]. As the patronym is documented from Ashkenazic Jewish sources, that entire name phrase needs to be linguistically consistent, even if the underlying Hebrew is unchanged [see Sera bat Josce, 06/2010]. Therefore, the name was changed (with permission) to use the Ashkenazic bas for the patronymic particle. Commenters could not find a real-life conflict for a Rabbi Mendel, so the name was not felt to be a presumptuous claim to relationship (RfS VI.3).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

24: Kean Gryffyth - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in August of 1998, via the East

Vert, a bear sejant erect argent and in base three plates one and two

His name was registered 08/1998 (East).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

25: Klaus Winterhalter von Walachey - New Name & New Device

Per fess Or and gules, an eagle rising contourny regardant sable and on a chief embattled azure three mullets of eight points voided and interlaced Or

The name was submitted as Klaus von Winterhalter von Wallachia, and was changed at the submitter's request (dropping first von) and to match the available documentation (changing the locative).

Klaus is a hypocoristic form of Nikola(u)s, a saint's name attested in Bahlow, Unsere Vornamen im Wandel der Jahrhunderte. <Nokolaus Kopernukus> dates to 1472. Talan Gwynek, "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/bahlow/), s.n. Nicolaus dates <Klas> to 1420. Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from 1495" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/german1495.html) gives 36 instances of <Claus>. As such, the submitted spelling seems to be a reasonable variant.

Winterhalter is found in Brechenmacher, which lists a <Gilgemann Winterhalder, zu Hugelheim>, 1479. Bahlow/Gentry appears to date the submitted spelling to 1460 in Freiburg.

von is the locative preposition in German, an example of which is <von Bern>, found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from Rottweil, Baden-Württemberg, 1441" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/rottweilsur.html).

Walachey is a locative shown in a caption "Die walachey" on a picture by Hartmann Schlebel, 1493 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cronica_nurenburg.jpg). The locative was changed from von Wallachia to the attested form (only capitalized) in order to better match the documentation and to have a wholly German locative name phrase. Assistance finding the submitted spelling in a German context is appreciated.

The client wants 'Klaus' and 'Winterhalter' to be unchanged. The form indicates that he would prefer 'von Winterhalter', but upon follow up at Pennsic, it was found that he would prefer 'Winterhalter' without the preposition. This was confirmed by email after Pennsic.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

26: Kusunoki Yoshimoto - Resub Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in September of 1995, via the East

Argent, three bars wavy azure and in chief two arrows inverted in saltire gules

His name was registered 09/1995 via the East. This is the submitter's third resubmission, all via the East. Argent, a Japanese stream fesswise azure within and conjoined to a bordure sable was returned 09/1995:

The primary charge is not blazonable in standard heraldic terminology, as required by RfS VII.7.b. ("Any element used in Society armory must be describable in standard heraldic terms"). The closest anyone could come here was barrulets bevilled arrondy, and even that does not truly describe the nature of the charges or their partial conjoining.

Argent, three barrulets wavy azure and in chief a roundel sable was returned 08/1998:

This conflicts with Johann Lorinson Per chevron embattled argent and gules, in chief a gunstone., because Argent, three bars wavy azure is equivalent to a field Barry wavy argent and azure. It was not unusual for barry or paly fields in period to be drawn with an odd number of traits (which we'd blazon as bars or palets); see, for example, the arms of Mouton (Multon, Moleton) found both as Barry argent and gules and Argent, three bars gules (Dictionary of British Armory, pp 59, 88; Foster, p. 145). The same thing is found in the arms of von Rosenberg, whose Per fess field has in base either three bends or bendy depending upon the artist's whim (Siebmacher, p. 8; Neubecker and Rentzmann, p. 290). Even when the distinction is worth blazoning, it's worth no difference. Therefore, there is just one CD for difference in the fields.

Lastly, Argent, a demi-roundel gules issuant from three barrulets beviled azure was returned 10/2002:

The bendlets provided here are not bevilled. A bend bevilled, as illustrated in the Pictorial Dictionary, is a bend which has been cut along a vertical line and offset so that the top edge of the chiefmost portion of the bend touches the bottom edge of the basemost portion. Each of the bars here is in a "Z" shape: the bar is not broken but bent at two sharp angles. No evidence has been presented that a bar in this shape is a period heraldic charge or an SCA-compatible heraldic charge.

Moreover, the nested Z-shaped barrulets are each individually much too thin and much too close together for good heraldic style for any sort of barrulet. This emblazon is much more like a single Z-shaped barrulet with white artistic details rather than three barrulets bevilled. We cannot, however, reblazon this, as we lack a term of art for a Z-shaped barrulet of this sort.

While the College speculated about whether a charge of this shape might be a traditional element of Japanese mon, no such example has been found. The closest that could be found is the traditional Japanese stream depiction, which uses S-shaped barrulets.

As this design cannot be blazoned in either Eastern or Western terms, and as it is not a documentable design in either the East or the West, it cannot be accepted.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

27: Llywelyn ab Olwyn - New Name & New Device

Sable, a chevron cotised between two mallets and an eagle, a bordure argent

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (13th C Welsh) most important.
Culture (13th C Welsh) most important.

Llywelyn is found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "Snapshot of a Cantref: The Names and Naming Practices in a Mawddwy Court Roll of 1415-16" (http://www.heatherrosejones.com/names/welsh/mawddwy1415.html), along with the Latin ablative forms <Llywelino> and <Llywelyno>. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" (http://www.heatherrosejones.com/names/welsh/simple13thmerioneth.html) includes <Lewelin> and <Lewelyn>. Bardsley, s.n. Ivor includes <Llewelyn ap Ivor>, dated 1321.

ab Olwyn is a patronym based on <Olwyn>, a masculine given name found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "Names and Naming Practices in the Merioneth Lay Subsidy Roll 1292-3" (KWHSS Proceedings, 1991). ab is used because the father's given name starts with a vowel.

The name is formed according to the information in Tangwystyl's article "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" (cited above).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

28: Lúta Þóraldsdóttir - New Name & New Device

Or, a dragon displayed purpure on a chief vert three fireballs Or

Sound ('loo-tah') most important.

The name was submitted as Lúta Þoraldsdóttir, but the accents were corrected to match the available documentation.

Lúta is found in Geirr Bassi (p. 13) as a feminine form of Lútr. The submitter asks that no changes be made to the given name that would change the sound.

Þóraldsdóttir is a patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Þóraldr (ibid., pp. 16-7).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

29: Magnús œðikollr - New Device

OSCAR thinks the name is registered as Magnús oeðikollr in April of 2010, via the East.

Gules, an open book azure en soleil Or, on a chief argent a bear passant sable

His name was accepted and a device, Gules, an open book Or bound sable en soleil Or, on a chief argent a bear passant sable, was returned in 04/2010 (East):

This device is returned for lack of identifiability caused by lack of contrast. Books are generally considered to be tinctured based on the pages, not the binding. This design, therefore, has an Or book on an Or sun, which renders the book nearly unidentifiable. Section VIII.3 of the Rules for Submissions requires that "Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability", and continues to say that "marginal contrast" is one of the ways elements may be rendered unidentifiable. That is the case here.

[The name appears in the 04/2010 LOAR with Da'ud notation for the initial letter of the byname. OSCAR automatically converts this notation when possible, so the name cannot be matched with the O&A.]

Correction (2010-Dec-01 15:12:46): This is a Resub Device.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

30: Marian Kirkpatrick - New Name & New Device

Quarterly argent and vert, a Maltese cross counterchanged and a bordure sable

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Meaning (Marian with an a, not o; wants a Scottish name) most important.

Marian is found in Talan Gwynek, "Late 16th Century English Given Names" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng16/eng16ffreq.html). This spelling could not be found in Scots.

Kirkpatrick is from Black, s.n. Kirkpatrick, which cites an "<Ivone de Kirkpatrick> has a charter on the whole land of Kelosbern from Alexander II in 1232", and includes <Roger de Kirpatric> (1523). Another spelling, <Kirkpatrik> was found in Records of the Scottish Parliament (http://www.rps.ac.uk/), in non-normalized entrys dated 22 August 1584 and 14 April 1567. A very similar spelling, <Kirkpatryk> was found in 1439 in 'Lateran Regesta, 366: 1439', Calendar of Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 9: 1431-1447 (1912), pp. 48-55 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=103393). The given name <Patrick> (along with <Patrik>) was found in Muirgheal inghean Alasdair, "16th and 17th Century Scots Names from Andrew Melville's Commonplace Book" (http://www.mulletargent.com/projects/aberdeennames.html). As such, the submitted spelling of the byname was considered to be plausible in a time compatible with the given name.

The combination of English and Scots is registerable without a step from period practice.

The depiction of the Maltese cross was questioned; however, according to the current standard on Maltese crosses (05/2007 Cover Letter), the arms must be at least as wide as the space between them. As these are larger than the open space, identifiability is not fatally compromised.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

31: Marieta Charay - New Name

No major changes.
Sound (unspecified) most important.

Marieta is a feminine given name found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Names from Périgueux, 1339-1340" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/french/perigueux.html). The tax record used to compile the data in this article was from an Occitan-speaking region.

Charay is a byname in Juliana de Luna, "Occitan Townspeople in the 14th Century - Bynames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/occitan/occitan_bynames.html).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

32: Marietta da Firenze - New Release of Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in May of 2004, via the East

Per pale vert and Or, a badger rampant sable marked argent

Her name was registered 05/2004 via the East. The badge being released was registered 02/2010 via the East.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

33: Markus von der Oesten - New Name & New Device

Per pale argent and sable, two ferrets combattant counterchanged

No major changes.
Meaning (('Mark of the East')) most important.

Markus is found in Talan Gwynek, "Later Period German Masculine Given Names" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/germmasc.html) dated to 1401-50, in the list of names of Latin or Christian origin from Plauen.

von der Osten is found in Brechenmacher, s.n. Ost, dated to 1254.

The device is clear of the in-progress submission of Natasiia Khorokova (Calontir 6/28/2010 xLoI), Per pale sable and argent, two ferrets saliant respectant conjoined at the front paws, with one CD for flipping the tinctures of the field and another for doing the same to the critters.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

34: Michael Leopold - New Name

No major changes.
Sound (Michael Leo-pold) most important.
Language (German) most important.
Culture (German) most important.

Michael is found in Guntram von Wolkenstein, "German Names from Kocise, 1307 - 1505" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/kosice.htm), which includes <Michael Kukelbrecht>, dated 1504-5.

Leopold is found in Brechenmacher, with <von Leopold> dated 1566. <Leupolt> is found as a surname in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from Kulmbach, 1495" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/surnameskulmbach.html). Talan Gwynek, "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/bahlow/bahlowMasc.html) has <Leupold> (125 [sic]), <Lewpold> (1369), <Luppolt> (1349), and <Lupoldus> (1272, 1321). Assistance finding justification for the submitted spelling as either an unmarked patronym or unmarked locative is appreciated. Unmarked patronyms are found in German, an example of which is <Dytel>, discussed in Talan Gwynek, "Notes on Surnames in German Names from Kosice, 1300 - 1500" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/kosice/).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

35: Mikjáll bogmaðr - New Name

No major changes.
Meaning ('Michael the archer') most important.

The name was submitted as Mikjáll Bogmaðr.

Mikjáll is found as a given name in Geirr Bassi, p. 13.

bogmaðr 'archer' is from Cleasby-Vigfusson. [Note: It was missed in commentary that the actual form in this source was bog-maðr, per http://lexicon.ff.cuni.cz/html/oi_cleasbyvigfusson/b0072.html.] As descriptive bynames are not capitalized, this was corrected.

The submitter will accept intermediate changes.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

36: Misha Gryffyth - New Name & New Device

Vert, a griffin couchant regardant above a broken collar and chain nowed argent

Sound ('MEE-shah') most important.

Misha is found in Wickenden, 3rd edn., s.n. Mikhail (p. 211), as a diminutive of Mikhail. It is dated to the "late 16th c." in that spelling.

Gryffyth is the submitter's husband's registered byname. A letter documenting the relationship was completed at Heralds Point (per Wirdo, the consulting herald), but was missing from the packet. The submitter has been contacted in order to obtain a replacement, but it has not yet been received. However, the submitted spelling of the byname is found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "Naming Practices in 16th Century Gloucestershire" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/GlocNamePractices/WelshInfluences.shtml#Surnames). Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon1582a-m.html) includes the variants <Gryffithe> and <Gryffythe>. As such, it is possible that the submitter need not grandfather the name.

The combination of Russian and Elizabethan English is a step from period practice [Tatiana Todhunter, 03/1993].


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

37: Morgan ap Madwyn - New Name & New Device

Argent, a bend sinister between a harp azure and a rose slipped and leaved gules

Meaning ('son of Madwyn') most important.

Morgan is found as a byname dated 1214 in R&W, s.n. Morgan, along with a given name <Morganus>, dated 1159. It is also found as a given name in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names (in English Contexts)" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/welsh16.html).

ap is the patronymic particle in Welsh, according to Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names (in English Contexts)" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/welsh16.html). This article also gives the pattern given name ap <father's given name>.

Madwyn is found in Morgan & Morgan, s.n. Maldwin, dated to the 16th century.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

38: Ono no Fujiwara Izumi - New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.

The submitted documented this to match her persona, "a Onin-era woman of minor nobility, residing in Kyoto and Uji." (The "Onin-era" mentioned by the submitter was thought to refer to the Onin Wars of 1467-7, which falls in the Muromachi period of 1330s-1573.)

Ono is a family name found in NCMJ, dated to 1183 (p. 102), with an example given of <Ono no Komachi>, a female, 9th century poet (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ono_no_Komachi).

Fujiwara is a common clan name dated to 669 (p. 391) that is still in use today.

Izumi is a surname, not a given name, meaning 'spring'. It is dated 1213 (p. 152), with an example <Izumi Shikibu>, a female poet who was the daughter of a provincial governor. However, it was considered possible that a name of this type could have been used as a given name in the late-period Muromachi era. The given name Izumi was "taken on a whim", but generally falls into the category of "something from nature" used as a root name. Solveig dates it to the Kamakura era, so it was extant (if not common) during the Muromachi era. Solveig also notes that later in the Muromachi, feminine names consisting of simply the root name (Tora, Chiyo,) were common, so Izumi could be as well. (ibid, pg. 50).

Koop & Inada "have documented the combination of both a clan and family name..." (citing NCMJ, pg 68).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

39: Oswyn Northwode - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Meaning (spelling: keep the Y in Oswyn) most important.

Oswyn is found in Withycombe, s.n. Oswin, with the header spelling dated to the 14th century. R&W, s.n. Oswin also includes a Latinized form, <Oswinus>, c. 1250, and <Roger Oswin>, 1221. The entry states that it's derived from the Old English Ōswine, 'god-friend'. The i/y switch is common in English, so this unattested variant seems plausible.

Northwode is found in R&W, s.n. Northwood, which gives <Northwud> as a surname in 1205. Ekwall, s.n. Northwood has the submitted spelling dated to 1287-90, 1316, and 1438. Bardsley, s.n. Northwood has <de Northwode> dated 1273 and 1379. Dropping the preposition is unremarkable, per the introduction of R&W.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

40: Otto Gottlieb - New Name & New Device

Sable, on a bend between six gouttes Or a stein inverted sable

Sound ('Got-leeb') most important.
Language (13th-14th C Swabian -> Freiburg IM Briesgan) most important.
Culture (13th-14th C Swabian -> Freiburg IM Briesgan) most important.

Otto is found in Talan Gwynek, "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/bahlow/bahlowMasc.html), with one instance dated 1397.

Gottlieb is a header form in Brechenmacher, which includes the attested spelling <Godelewe>, dated to 1320. Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/german/nurnbert1497.html) includes <Gotleib> as a masculine given name. Bahlow/Gentry, s.n. Gottschalk has both <Gottschalk> and <Gotschalk> (1470 and 1317, respectively), so the submitted spelling seems reasonable. The submitter would like to get "as close as possible" to the submitted spelling, but will accept the attested spelling <Godelewe> if necessary for registration.

Unmarked patronyms are found in German, an example of which is <Dytel>, discussed in Talan Gwynek, "Notes on Surnames in German Names from Kosice, 1300 - 1500" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/kosice/).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

41: Robert de Meinzeis - New Name & New Device

Gules, an elephant statant contourny and on a chief embattled argent a tree fesswise blasted and eradicated azure

No changes.
Sound (unspecified) most important.

Robert is a masculine given name described in Black, s.n. Robert as being an Old English personal name. An example is <Alexander Robert>, a Scots man who was arrested as a spy and liberated in 1402. It is also found in the submitted spelling in Talan Gwynek, "Yorkshire Given Names from 1379" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/yorkshire.html#yorkm).

de Meinzeis (Black, s.n. Menzies) appears in the name of <Alexander de Mayneris or Meinzeis>, who had charters from Robert I (1274-1329).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

42: Robert Fairfax - Resub Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in December of 2004, via the East

Per pale azure and argent, a chevron wavy between three roundels counterchanged

His name was registered 12/2004 (East). His device, Pily bendy and per pale Or and gules, was returned at the same time for multiple conflicts.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

43: Robert Howys of Morningthorpe - New Name

No major changes.
Language (English, 1500s) most important.
Culture (English, 1500s) most important.

Robert is found in R&W, s.n. Robert, with this spelling dated to 1292. <Robart> is dated to 1332. R&W, s.n. Robertshaw, dates the <Robert> spelling to 1502. It is also found in the submitted spelling in Talan Gwynek, "Yorkshire Given Names from 1379" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/yorkshire.html#yorkm).

Howys is a surname found in Hitching & Hitching, 1601.

Morningthorpe is a parish in South Norfolk, according to Ekwall, s.n. Thorpe. The submitted spelling is extrapolated from <Moryngthorpe>, found in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (http://books.google.com/books?id=9_5aAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA195, p. 195), dated 1517. The i/y switch is unremarkable, so the submitted spelling was considered to be plausible for late period England.

The submitter also notes that his wife, Elaine Howys of Morningthorpe, is submitting the same byname; if his name is changed, hers must be changed to match.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

44: Robert Le Chat - New Name & New Device

Gules, a bend between a stein and a panther incensed statant to sinister and on a chief argent a hops vine fructed vert

No major changes.

Robert is the submitter's legal given name, as attested by Ursula Georges at Heralds Point. The name is also found in R&W, s.n. Catt, with <Robert le Cat> (although it was likely Robertus) found in 1167. It is also found in the submitted spelling in Talan Gwynek, "Yorkshire Given Names from 1379" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/yorkshire.html#yorkm). Lastly, the submitted spelling is found in R&W, s.n. Robert, with this spelling dated to 1292. <Robart> is dated to 1332. R&W, s.n. Robertshaw, dates the <Robert> spelling to 1502.

le Chat is found in R&W, s.n. Catt, with <Adam le Chat> dated 1203. It is also found in Bardsley, s.n. Catt, dated 1199-1216. Additional spellings in the same entry were <le Catt> (1286), <le Cat> (1275), and - without the definite article - <Catte> (1465) and <Cat> (1327). Examples of occupational bynames using Le (rather than le) were found in 'Subsidy Roll 1292: Billingsgate ward', Two Early London Subsidy Rolls (1951), pp. 193-199 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=31927), so I am giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt that this was also done for descriptive bynames. Examples of that capitalization were <Walterus Le marberer> and <Simon Le Coteler> (ibid.).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

45: Rowan Orr - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in September of 2009, via the East

Quarterly vert and argent, a tree counterchanged

Her name was registered and a device, Per pale vert and argent, a tree counterchanged, was returned on the 09/2009 LoAR (East) for conflict with the device of Aleyn More, Per pale vert and argent, a weeping willow counterchanged, and the device of Wolfgang von Valkonberg, Per pale vert and argent, a blasted tree atop a mount counterchanged. The field has been changed to a quarterly division to clear these conflicts.

Correction (2010-Dec-01 15:12:38): This is a Resub Device.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

46: Sara bat Elam - New Name & New Device

Vert, on a billet fesswise Or ermined azure, a hare rampant Or

No major changes.
Language (Middle Eastern/Persian and Hebrew) most important.
Culture (Middle Eastern/Persian and Hebrew) most important.

The name was submitted as Sarai bat Elam.

The submitted form Sarai is a original name of Abraham's wife in Genesis 11:29 (changed to Sara by God), and is found in Withycombe, s.n. Sara(h) and in Beider, A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation, and Migrations (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, Inc., 2001), s.n. Sore.

The submitted spelling could not, however, be attested as a personal name in our period. Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "Jewish Names in Ottoman Court Records (16th C Jerusalem)" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Jerusalem/WomenFreq.shtml) includes the name Sāra. The names in this source were pulled from records in Turkish and Arabic. Sara was also found as a Muslim name in Ursula Georges, "Sixteenth-Century Turkish Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ursula/ottoman/). It is also found in Hebrew in Juliana de Luna, "Jewish Women's Names in an Arab Context: Names from the Geniza of Cairo" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/geniza.html). As nearly all sources transliterate this name as Sara, and the submitted spelling was possibly too unique to be registered, the given name has been changed to Sara.

bat 'daughter' is found in Juliana's article, cited above.

Elam is a place name found in Genesis 10:20 and is the name of the eldest son of Shem, son of Noah, in Genesis 10:22. It is also the name of eight other men in the Bible (1 Chronicles 8:24 and 26:3; Ezra 2:1-2, 7, 31; Ezra 8:7; Ezra 10:3; Nehemiah 10:14 and 12:42). Use of Elam by Jews in period could not be attested; however, as it is a Biblical name, the submitter was given the benefit of the doubt.

The submitter will allow intermediate changes.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

47: Seán Sreamach mac Tomáis - New Name & New Badge

(Fieldless) A trefoil knot per pale vert and argent

Sound (given name to match his legal name, Sean) most important.

Seán is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Sean.shtml), in years 1316-1602. The submitted spelling is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic nominative form.

Sreamigh '[the] Blear-eyed' is a descriptive byname found in years 1377-1405 (ibid., http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Sreamach.shtml).

Tomáis is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic genitive form of <Tomás>, found in years 794-1596 (ibid., http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Tomas.shtml).

mac is the patronymic particle. That and the name pattern <single given name> <descriptive adjective> mac <father's given name (in genitive case & sometimes lenited)> are found in Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (3rd edn., http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#descriptivewithpatronymic).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

48: Shoshana Gryffyth - New Name & New Device

Azure, on a pale sable fimbriated between two griffins combattant, three sheaves of three keys wards to base argent

Shoshana is a modern standard transliteration of the Hebrew feminine given name, found in Beider, A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation, and Migrations (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, Inc., 2001), s.n. Shoshane. It is dated 1318 and 1338. Citing Beider (ibid.), Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 3372 (http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi/3372.txt), states that,

<Shoshanah> derives from the Hebrew noun meaning "lily" or "rose." The name <Shoshanah> is not found in the Hebrew Bible, although the Hebrew common noun from which it derives appears in Song of Songs 2:1. The earliest evidence for the use of the name <Shoshanah> is the apocryphal book of Susanna. (The Apocrypha are not part of the Hebrew Bible.) Although <Susanna> was used by medieval Christians, <Shoshanah> was not a common Jewish name before 1600 and is not often encountered in records referring to Ashkenazic Jewish bearers [1]. We could not find examples of <Shoshana> among Sephardic Jews.

In Hebrew, it is spelled [shin vav shin nun heh]. Examples in Hebrew are found in Germany, dated from 1318 to before 1342, and Austria, dated to 1641 [1]. We also found references in Czech-language records to Jewish women using names that are forms of <Shoshanah>: <Suzanne> in 1481, <Zuzana> in 1545, and <Zuzanna> in 1546.

and

...<Shoshanah>...may be transliterated without the final silent /h/.

The above letter cites Beider (ibid.) for that information. The submitter prefers the terminal -a. (Note: Beider uses an academic transliteration scheme that's a little conservative in its use of vowels compared to normal use.) Per precedent, modern standard transliterations are registerable for languages like Hebrew [Avraham Harofeh, 10/2003], so the submitted spelling should be acceptable.

Gryffyth is found in R&W, s.n. Griffith, with <Jone Gryffyth> dated to 1524.

The submitter is aware that she is mixing German Jewish and English name elements. The combination of German and English is a step from period practice [Lillian von Wolfsberg, 11/01]. Hebrew (in German context) plus English does not appear to have been ruled upon to date.

A possible conflict with Susannah Griffon (10/1983, Middle) was called in commentary. However, even though a Christian form of Shoshana is Suzanna, Beider notes that this form of the name was noted as being "unlikely to have been used by Jews among themselves" and "most likely represent Christian substitutes of the Jewish forms". As such, they were not likely to have been used interchangeably in the same records. In addition, Griffon and Gryffyth were thought to be sufficiently different in both sound and appearance.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

49: Shoshana Gryffyth - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name on the East LoI of November 30, 2010 as submitted.

Sable, a sheaf of three keys wards to base argent


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

50: Síle inghean mhic Chárthaigh - New Name Change

OSCAR NOTE: 'Old Item' should contain the former primary name. The form that is there is not a registered name.

Old Item: Síle Bowie, to be released.

Her current name was registered 01/2008 via the East.

Síle is grandfathered to the submitter. The given name is also the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form, as found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Sile.shtml).

The formation of a two-generation patronymic byname is found in Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names", 3rd edn. (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/): <single given name> inghean <father's given name (in genitive case & always lenited unless starting with D, T, L, N, R, or a vowel)> mhic <grandfather's given name (in genitive case & always lenited unless starting with C or a vowel)>.

Chárthaigh is the feminine and lenited form of <Mac Cárthaigh>, a header in Woulfe: "They took their name from Cartac, lord of the Eoghanacht, whose tragic death in 1045 is recorded in the Annals." Elmet noted that Mac Cárthaigh should be consistent with the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of the name based on the inclusion of Anglicized 16th and 17th forms in that entry. These forms are M'Carhie, M'Carhig, and O Carhy, corresponding to Mac Cárthaigh and Ó Cárthaigh according to Mari's article "16th & 17th Century Anglicized Irish Surnames from Woulfe" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Woulfe/SortedByGaelicRoot_C1.shtml).


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

51: Sorcha Dhocair inghean Uí Ruairc - New Name & New Device

Gyronny Or and vert, a ship sailing to sinister sable between three groups of three goutes de poix, each one and two

Sound (unspecified) most important.

Sorcha is described by OC&M as being a "relatively common name in medieval Ireland". It is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of the name, found in years 1480-1639? in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Sorcha.shtml).

inghean Uí is the particle for a clan affiliation byname, according to Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Simple Gaelic Names" (3rd edn., http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/).

Ruaircc is found in years 862-913 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals", s.n. Ruarcc (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Ruarcc.shtml). This article lists <Ruaircc> as the standard Old Irish Gaelic and Middle Irish Gaelic genitive form of the name. OC&M, s.n. Ruarc, gives <Ó Ruairc> as the derived surname. As Ruiarc is a Middle Irish form, the particle would need to be changed to the Middle Irish form in order for that name phrase to be linguistically consistent. Note, however, that Woulfe has the header Ó Ruairc. Woulfe's headers are generally consistent with Early Modern Irish Gaelic spellings, and Woulfe also lists Anglicized 16th and 17th century examples of this byname, such as M'Royke (corresponding to Ó Ruairc according to Mari's article "16th & 17th Century Anglicized Irish Surnames from Woulfe" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Woulfe/SortedByGaelicRoot_R.shtml). it was considered likely that this was an instance where the Gaelic header was the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. As a result, it was thought that the submitted form was correct.

Dhocair '[the] Grievous/Troublesome/Difficult (Mischievous)' is the lenited spelling of a descriptive byname found in Mari's article (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Docair.shtml). The article states that <Docair> is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic nominative and genitive form, and that is found for years 1383 and 1387.

The name is clear of Sorcha inghean ui Ruairc (03/1999, East) by the addition of the descriptive byname.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

52: Temur of the Kirghiz - New Name & New Device

Sable, a winged lion passant contourny and a bordure embattled Or

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Culture (Mongol persona, needs name translated to sound right) most important.

Temur is a masculine given name found in "Names of the Secret History of the Mongols" by Heather Daveno (http://www.laohats.com/studypages/mongol_names.htm).

Kirghiz was a nomadic tribe in the Middle Ages (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/KHA_KRI/KIRGHIZ.html). The submitter cares most about meaning and the Mongol language/culture, and would like assistance translating the name properly, "but might settle for a Kyrgyz or other central Asia" [sic]. Ursula was contacted to assist with this name. She provided information that the Islamic scholar al-Biruni (d. 1030) lists the <XirXîz> among the "peoples of the Sixth Clime", and that the 11th century Islamic scholar Mahmud al-Kashgari lists "<QIr{g)}Iz> which is near China" after a list of Western Turkic tribes, citing Peter Golden, "Cumanica II", 1985/1987 (In: Nomads and Their Neighbours in the Russian Steppe (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Variorum, 2003; chapter XII, p. 20). She noted that, "the capital I represents an un-dotted lowercase I, and the {g)} a letter 'g' with a little cup mark above it. A less careful transliteration might be <Qirqiz>." Thus, it is apparent that the Krygyz were known by some form of the name in period, but we still need a way to construct the name in a Turkic or Mongol context.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

53: Tiberius Iulius Rufus - New Household Name

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in May of 2007, via the East

Domus Pugni Argentei

No major changes.

The name was submitted as Domus Pugnus Argentius, but it was changed to correct the Latin grammar (see below). The submitter's name was registered 05/2007 via the East, along with a device, Gyronny of sixteen Or and gules, a roundel Or fimbriated and on a chief sable a lightning bolt Or. He also has two badges that were registered 02/2009 via the East: Gules, a gauntleted fist argent within and conjoined to an annulet Or and (Fieldless) A gauntleted fist argent within and conjoined to an annulet Or.

This name is intended to be a Latinized form of an English or French inn-sign name meaning 'House of the white/silver fist' or 'silver fist house'. All elements were found in Lewis & Short's Latin Dictionary online, but the submitter was unsure if the proper form should be <Argentus> or <Argentius>. The submitter will allow intermediate changes.

The grammar of the name was corrected using the assistance of commenters on the SCAHRLDS listserve. Using the adjective 'silver', the correct form was Domus Pugni Argentei, and using 'white', Domus Pugni Albi. The question was asked whether a fully Latinized household name could be justified. An example of a fully Latinized inn-sign name was <signum Ursi> (at the sign of the bear), found in the raw data for Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "English Sign Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/inn/raw.shtml), and colleges were found with fully Latinized names in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan and Juliana de Luna, "Names of English Colleges" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Colleges/Colleges.shtml). Multiple examples following the pattern <metal + object> (e.g., Golden Bell, Golden Cup) and one example of <metal + animal>l (Brass Serpent) were found in Margaret Makafee, "Comparison of Inn/Shop/House names found London 1473-1600 with those found in the ten shires surrounding London in 1636" (http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~grm/signs-1485-1636.html). Signs using "Argentei" can be found in Revue des bibliothèque (http://books.google.com/books?id=h05CODS_-NUC&pg=PA38#v=onepage&q=argentei&f=false), e.g. <Ad intersignium Leonis Argentei> (1509).

Body parts used in Margaret's article were the hand(s) and head, with one a more complex arrangement of hands being <Hand in Hand> (1636). As such, the use of 'fist' was considered at least possible. The term itself is found a. 900 ("Pugnas, fyste") to 1650 ("fist") in the OED, with the meaning of a tightly clenched hand. As the heraldic charges cubit arms and arms embowed terminate in clenched hands (Fox-Davies, p. 169, 1978 reprint), this concept didn't seem out of place on an actual inn-sign.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

54: Tristan Winter de Calais - New Name & New Device

Counter-ermine, on a pale Or three Maltese crosses sable

The name was submitted as Tristan Winter, but was changed to clear a potential conflict (see below).

Tristan is the name of multiple men in Jean Froissart's Chroniques (1373-1400), such as <Tristan de la Gaille> found in M.S. Berlin Rehdiger 3, fol. 120 v (http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/onlinefroissart/browsey.jsp?AbsDiv=ms.f.transc.Bre-3&AbsPb=Bre-3_120v). The French transcriptions found at the Online Froissart don't appear to have been normalized (although the English translations on the site were).

Winter is found in R&W, s.n. Winter, with <Roger Winter> found in 1185. Bardsley, s.n. Winter has a <Gelle Winter>, dated 1273.

Calais is a city in northern France mentioned in Froissart, for example, "...les seigneurs de France a aller a Calais..." ("...the lords of France went to Calais..."), found in Antwerp M 15.5, fol. 333r (http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/onlinefroissart/browsey.jsp?AbsDiv=ms.f.transc.Ant-2&AbsPb=Ant-2_333r&ter ms=calais). Bardsley, s.n. Callis has <de Calays>, dated 1379.

The combination of French and English is registerable without a step from period practice.

The submitter was made aware of a possible conflict with Tristana de Winter (03/1997, Caid), and specifically chose Tristan Winter of/de Calais as a second choice. If other changes need to be made, the submitter has asked to be notified.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

55: Tysha z Kieva - New Name

No major changes.
Sound (Given name: shortens to Ty or Tiy; byname: contains Kieva) most important.

Tysha is a masculine given name found in Wickenden, 3rd edn., s.n. Tisha. The submitted spelling is dated 1650, and variants <Tisha> and <Tyszka> are dated 1495 and 1558, respectively.

z Kieva is a locative byname meaning 'from Kiev' based on Wickenden, "Locative Bynames in Medieval Russia" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/toprus.html), with the place name being found in bynames at the beginning of the 16th century. The article gives <iz Kieva> as an example of the construction preposition and genitive form of the placename. Other examples are <Ermak iz Velikozo Dvora> (c. 1492) and <Sarei z Belina> (c. 1462-9).

The submitter will allow intermediate changes.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

56: Vienna de la Mer - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in June of 2010, via the East

(Fieldless) A sea-monkey vert

Her current primary name was registered 06/2010 via the East. A device, Argent, on a pale wavy between two Latin crosses formy swallowtailed azure a sea-unicorn argent, was registered 01/2004 via the East (under the name Viennet de la Mer).

The badge is clear of Callistus Gill (badge, 01/2006, Atlantia), (Fieldless) A monkey rampant reguardant vert maintaining a mug Or. There is one CD for fieldlessness, and another for the difference between a monkey and a sea-monkey. There is no difference granted for removing the maintained mug.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

57: Wilhelm Turm - New Name Change & New Device Change

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in February of 2011, via the East.

Per pale argent and sable, on a tower a crescent, a bordure embattled counterchanged

Old Item: Ilias Bathory, to be retained as an alternate name.
Old Item: Per pale ermine and sable, a falcon striking azure, to be retained as a badge.
No major changes.
Meaning (William of/from the Tower) most important.

His current name and device were registered 03/2008 via the East.

Wilhelm is a header form in Bahlow/Gentry, where it is stated it was used (as a given name, presumably) by 117 knights at a festival in 1171. The given name appears in the submitted spelling in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/german/nurnberg1497.html). The Latinized <Wilhelmus> appears in Talan Gwynek, "German Given Names 1200-1250" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/germ13.html).

Turm is found in Brechenmacher, s.n. Turm, with <Wilh. im Turm> found in 1407. The preposition "im" in the Brechenmacher entry is a contraction of "in dem" (in the). The cited entry in Brechenmacher states that Turm is an older form of Turn. Under that heading (ibid.), is a <Lambert Turn>, bishop of Cologne, dated 1164.

The submitter will allow intermediate changes.


This item was on the 02-2011 LoAR

58: Zappa Venture - New Name & New Device

Sable, a coney courant to sinister argent within a bordure bendy of nine argent and vert

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (13th C Italian) most important.
Culture (13th C Italian) most important.
Meaning (Spelling) most important.

Zappa is found in Juliana de Luna, "Masculine Names from Thirteenth Century Pisa" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/pisa/pisa-given-alpha.html), with one instance.

Venture is a byname that occurs twice in the same article (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/pisa/pisa-bynames-alpha.html).


[Bahlow/Gentry] Bahlow, Hans. Deutsches Nameslexikon. (Transl. E. Gentry)



[Bardsley] Bardsley, Charles. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames.



[Beider] Alexander Beider. A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names: Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation, and Migrations (Bergenfield, NJ: Avotaynu, Inc., 2001)



[Black] Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland.



[Brechenmacher] Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen.



[Cleasby and Vigfusson] Cleasby, Richard, and Gudbrand Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary.



[D&R] Dauzat, Albert and Rostaing, Charles. Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France.



[Ekwall] Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names.



[Geirr Bassi] Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name.



[Hitching & Hitching] F. K. &smp; S. Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602.



[Morgan and Morgan] Morgan, T.J., and Prys Morgan. Welsh Surnames.



[Morlet Dictionnaire] Morlet, Maire-Therese. Dictionnaire Étymologique de Noms de Famille.



[Morlet I] Morlet, Marie-Therese. Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de l'Ancienne Gaule du VI au XII Si.



[NCMJ] Solveig Throndardottir. Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan.



[OC&M] Ó Corrain, Donnchadh & Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names.



[OED] Oxford English Dictionary. Compact edn.



[Wickenden] Paul Wickenden of Thanet, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. 2nd edn.



[R&W] Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames. 3rd edn.



[Room] Room, Adrian. A Dictionary of Irish Place-Names.



[SMP] Sveriges medeltida personnamn.



[Withycombe] Withycombe, E.G. Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names.



[Woulfe] Woulfe, Patrick. Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall: Irish Names and Surnames.


OSCAR counts 38 New Names, 4 New Name Changes, 1 New Alternate Name, 1 New Household Name, 33 New Devices, 2 New Device Changes and 7 New Badges. These 86 items are chargeable, Laurel should receive $258 for them. OSCAR counts 2 Resub Devices. These 2 items are not chargeable. OSCAR counts 1 Release of Badge. This item may or may not require payment. There are a total of 89 items submitted on this letter.

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