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East LoI dated 2009-03-14

Unto Olwyn Laurel, Istvan Wreath, Aryanhwy Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Brunissende Dragonette de Brocéliande, Blue Tyger Herald issuing here her last xLoI.

It is the intent of the Easterners to register the following items.

Unless otherwise noted, the submitter has no desire for authenticity, allows any changes, and allows a holding name.

This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

1: Brigitte Flamin - New Name & New Device

Per bend rayonny azure and Or, a wooden staff bendwise sinister proper enflamed of a sun Or.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Meaning (flame, fire) most important.

To make a (very) long story short, Academy of St. Gabriel report 1048 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/1048) is for this submitter.

Brigitte: The report says Brigitte became popular in France in honor of S. Birgitta of Sweden

(1303-1373), who cas canonized in 1391. Thus, it would not have been used until around 1400.citing Withycombe s.n. Bridget. Dauzat s.n. Bride says something about a matronymic derived from Brigitte with a parenthetical "Brigida, sainte bretonne" ('Breton saint'), and s.n. Brigitte it says something about a Swedish saint, all without dates, but confirming the gist of the cited Withycombe entry. For what it's worth, "16th Century Gloucestershire Names" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/late16.html) s.n. Bridgett cites one instance of Brigitta, dated to 1593 in Frocester. This is a Latin marriage register in England, and as such is unlikely to be helpful for a French name, but it's the closest dated cite we could find.

Flamin is cited as a byname meaning 'little flame', from Dauzat s.n. Flambard. It's undated, but the report lists it as a name used in period. For the surname, Brunissende says the Morlet Dictionnaire entry on Flambard identifies Flamin as an "ancient French" form, meaning 'little flame'. This should hopefully be enough to make this name registerable.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

2: Colin mac Eoain mec Lachlainn and Edward Grey of Lochleven - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name (Colin mac Eoain mec Lachlainn) registered exactly as it appears in March of 2005, via the East
OSCAR finds the name (Edward Grey of Lochleven) registered exactly as it appears in July of 2006, via the East

Quarterly vert and azure, an elm tree eradicated between three mullets of four points argent.

Colin mac Eoain mec Lachlainn's name and device (Per pale vert and azure, three boars rampant Or.) were registered in Mar. 2005, via the East.

The name Edward Grey of Lochleven was registered in July 2006, via the East.

This badge is a revised version of Edward's previous device submission, Per pale and per chevron inverted vert and azure, an oak tree eradicated between three mullets of four points argent, which was returned in Kingdom because the low-contrast field wasn't quarterly, per saltire, or evenly divided in two. This submission changes the field to quarterly, which is allowed to be low-contrast. (It also changes the type of tree from oak to elm.)

This badge is clear of Elissent Silverleaf (Aug. 2004 Outlands): Vert, an oak tree eradicated, trunk winged, and in chief three mullets of four points argent, with one CD for the field and one for the arrangement of the secondary charges (and possibly another for removing the wings). It's also clear of Ioseph of Locksley, the Rhymer (Jan. 1973): Vert, a tree eradicated argent, with one CD for the field and another for adding the mullets.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

3: Cristoff Gockerhan von Loch - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.

All documentation is from Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/german/nurnberg1497.html).

Cristoff is listed as a masculine given name, found ten times in this spelling.

Gockerhan occurs once in the list of surnames, in Nürnberg.

Loch is found in the placenames index as the medieval form of the modern placename Lochhof. The paragraph on naming patterns says "In the few examples of double surnames, the second was always a locative, e.g. Jorg Moler von Eystet."


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

4: Doucette de Verdun - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in December of 2004, via the East

(Fieldless) A horseshoe gules.

Her name and device (Ermine, a horse couchant gules within a bordure counter-compony gules and argent.) were registered in Dec. 2004, via the East.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

5: Duncan de Montdragon - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in October of 2008, via the East

Per pale Or and gules, two bears combattant counterchanged, on a chief azure a sword fesswise Or.

His name is on the June 2008 xLoI, which was decided last month.

His previous device submission, Per pale Or and gules, two bears combattant counterchanged, on a chief sable a sword fesswise Or, was returned in Kingdom for conflict with Sean Ladds (Jul. 2005 Atenveldt): Per pale Or and gules, two bears combatant counterchanged and on a chief sable a bear's pawprint argent, with just one CD for multiple changes to the tertiary charge.

This submission changes the tincture of the chief to clear this conflict.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

6: Edward Grey of Lochleven - New Household Name

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in July of 2006, via the East

House Lochleven

Sound (lochleven) most important.
Language (16th cent. Scottish) most important.
Culture (16th cent. Scottish) most important.

The name Edward Grey of Lochleven was registered in July 2006, via the East.

Lochleven is found in History of Lochleven Castle by Robert Burns-Begg (Kinross, 1888), Appendix I: "Extracts from Memorials of the Reign of Queen Mary by Claude Nau, Her Secretary", p. 117: "the village of Lochleven", "back to Lochleven Castle". The account is apparently for the year 1567. The placename is also found in Historical Records of the Family of Leslie, 1067 to 1868-9 by Colonel Leslie (Edinburgh, 1869), vol. II p. 66-67: "Sir William Douglas of Lochleven", "Peter Douglas of Lochleven", "Lady Lochleven", "they were called the pearls of Lochleven".

Lochleven is also part of the submitter's registered Society name.

As noted with the registration of the submitter's name, Lochleven is a modern spelling: although it's not inconsistent with period spellings of similar names, we haven't (yet) found this exact form in period. The sources cited with this submission don't help in this regard: as far as Eastern Crown can determine, they use standardized spellings throughout. Johnston's Place-names of Scotland (accessed via Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=QfEKZEKzWbwC) p. 200 s.n. Leven reads:

LEVEN (lochs, Kinross and N. Argyle; river, Dumbarton; town, Fife); also LEVENHALL (Musselburgh). Kin. L., a. 1100, Lochlevine; 1145, Lochlewyn; 1156, Lohuleuene. Arg. L., a. 1100, Tighernac, ann. 704, Glenlemnae. Fife L., c. 1535, Levin. Dumb. L., 1238, Flumen de Levyne; 1370, Lewyne; c. 1560, Levinus. G. leamhan, 'an elm' (cf. LENNOX, also Leven, Hull; Levens, Westmoreland). [...]

If Julia Eastern Crown is parsing it correctly, this means that the loch in Kinross is recorded as Lochlevine before 1100, Lochlewyn in 1145, and Lohuleuene in 1156; the loch in Argyle is Glenlemnae in an annal entry for 704; the town in Fife is Levin c. 1535; and the river in Dumbarton is Flumen de Levyne in 1238, Lewyne in 1370, and Levinus c. 1560; and all these place-names derive from the Gaelic word for 'elm'.

All that said, the spelling Lochleven is registerable (via the grandfather clause if nothing else), so she hasn't changed it. The name would better conform to the models of household names listed in the Rules for Submissions if the appropriate preposition was added ("House of Lochleven"), but adding a word is a major change, which the submitter doesn't allow


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

7: Edward Grey of Lochleven - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in July of 2006, via the East

Gules, a greyhound rampant to sinister between three mullets of four points argent, a bordure fleury Or.

His name was registered in July 2006, via the East.

His previous device submission of Per pale and per chevron inverted vert and azure, an oak tree eradicated between three mullets of four points argent was returned in Kingdom because the field had low contrast but wasn't quarterly, per saltire, or evenly divided in two. This device is completely different, but see his badge submission above."

Some commenters felt the mullets could stand to be somewhat larger, and the bordure's straight part should be wider. However, consensus was that everything is recognizable, so hopefully this will be registerable with perhaps just an artist's note.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

8: Friderich Schwartzwald - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Client requests authenticity for 16th century German.
Language (16th century German) most important.
Culture (16th century German) most important.

Friderich is found 3 times in the Pollingen and Sulme regions in "German Names from 1495" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/german1495.html). It's also in "Late Period German Masculine Given Names from 15th Century Arnsburg" by Talan Gwynek (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/germmasc/arnsburg15.html).

Schwarzwald is the German for Black Forest, according to Wikipedia under Black Forest (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Forest). Muir's Historical Atlas (9th ed., Barnes & Noble Inc., New York, 1962) on the map of "Germany about the year 962 A.D." has "Black Forest" between Alsace and Swabia.

According to Academy of S. Gabriel report 2155 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/2155), the Black Forest region has been known by some form of the name Schwarzwald since the 9th century, citing Schwarz: Deutsche Namenforschung. II: Orts- und Flurnamen, p. 186. However, the report notes that Brechenmacher has no citations (period or modern) for names using von and a named forest like the Schwarzwald or Odenwald. He does have s.n. Wald (p. 735): Joh. von dem Walde 1450 and Hans vorm Wald 1474, and s.n. Schwarzwald (p. 582) there's Bernh. Swartewolt 1350 (northern, Low German) and Cuonr. Swartzwalt 1443 (southern, High German). The closest Julia Eastern Crown can get to the submitter's desired early 16th century timeframe are three late-15th century name lists by Aryanhwy merch Catmael: "German Names from 1495" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/surnames1495.html), "German Names from Kulmbach, 1495" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/surnameskulmbach.html), and "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/surnamesnurn.html). These offer Schwarcz and Schwartz as common spellings for 'black', and the surname Walder in the third one shows that the word for 'forest' hasn't appreciably changed spellings.

Submitted as Friderich von dem Schwarzwald the name was changed to Friderich Schwartzwald to fulfill the request for authenticity and match the available documentation.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

9: Gaia Valeria Corva - New Name

No changes.

Her previous name submission of Gaia Valeria Corvus was returned in Kingdom because the cognomen didn't match the rest of the name in gender. This submission fixes this problem.

All parts of the name are based on Meradudd Cethin's "Names and Naming Practices of Regal and Republican Rome" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/roman/).

Gaia: feminine form of the praenomen Gaius.

Valeria: fem. form of the nomen Valerius.

Corva: fem. form of the cognomen Corvus. According to Johnston's The Private Life of the Romans (http://www.forumromanum.org/life/johnston_2.html#58), women used the tria nomina (praenomen + nomen + cognomen) in Imperial times.

Corvus and Corvinus are two different families, so there should not be an issue with presumption against the registered name Gaius Valerius Corvinus (Dec. 2006 Atenveldt).


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

10: Hugo von Gütenbach - New Name & New Device

Per chevron embattled sable and Or, three Maltese crosses in chevron and a griffin segreant counterchanged.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Language ((maybe) German) most important.
Culture ((maybe) German) most important.

Hugo is dated to 1410 in "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" by Talan Gwynek (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.htm).

von Gütenbach For the surname, the closest clearly period cite we found is Jacob Guthenbach 1579, from Baden-Baden (Brechenmacher s.n. Gutenbach). This probably refers to the same place: Gardner, McAnallen, Ralston and Fehrenbach Family History by Beatrice Fehrenbach Mansfield (Virtualbookworm Publishing, 2004; found in limited preview via Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=b98zWF9GkhgC) p. 288-89 lists "Gütenbach, Baden, Germany" as the birthplace of several people born in the 16th century, and Eastern Crown doubts that there are both a Gutenbach and a Gütenbach near Baden. The submitted spelling is not out of line with other period German names (see for example Bahlow/Gentry s.n Gün(t)zel: Günczel 1360 etc.), so she has made no changes.

This device is technically clear of Ekaterina Adrianovna Sinilnikova (Mar. 1994 Trimaris): Per chevron sable and Or, two Maltese crosses and a griffin counterchanged, with one CD for the type of field division (straight vs embattled) and another for the number of crosses. However, there's a pretty strong resemblance, so they may conflict under RfS X.5, Visual Test. It's a call for Wreath in any case, so Eastern Crown is forwarding it.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

11: Irayari Vairavi - New Name Change From Holding Name & New Badge

OSCAR NOTE: 'Old Item' should contain the former primary name. The form that is there is not a registered name.

(Fieldless) On a lotus affronty argent, a trident's head sable.

Old Item: Bhairavi of Thescorre, to be released.
Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Language (11th-13th c. South Indian (Tamil)) most important.
Culture (11th-13th c. South Indian (Tamil)) most important.

Spelling most important.

Her previous name submission of Bhairavi Palanimathi was returned (Nov. 1998 R-Æthelmearc) for lack of documentation for the byname.

Her badge ((Fieldless) A maiden's head cabossed azure crined sable) was registered in March 1999 via Æthelmearc under the holding name Bhairavi of Thescorre. She also has a device (Argent, a trident sable and a bordure vert semy of lotuses affronty argent), registered in Nov. 2003 via the East.

Documentation is from Karashima, Noboru, et al.: A Concordance of the Names in the Cola Inscriptions (3 vols.; Madurai: Sarvodaya Ilakkiya Pannai, 1978). This is a list of some 9500+ personal names taken from inscriptions created during the Cola (or Chola) Kingdom, which ruled large parts of southern India until the 14th century. The name records in the concordance give information about the location and date of the inscription, the pattern of name elements (such as village name, clan, father's name, given name, title), and the gender and status of the person referenced (if known). The most common pattern of name elements is <father's name> <given name>, for both men and women. (It would take some digging to figure out if some of the women's names are actually <husband's name> <given name>, as is common in more modern times.)

Irayari is listed in record 7108 on p. 654-55, identified as a personal (given) name from an inscription dated to 1014. A translation of the inscription found online (http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/south_indian_inscriptions/volume_2/no_95_outside_of_north_en closure.html) indicates that this person was the uncle of a shepherd.

Vairavi is the feminine form of the personal name Vayiravan, which is listed in record 2487 on p. 232, from an inscription dated to 1277. Vayiravan and its alternate transliteration Vairavan are Tamilized forms of the Sanskrit name Bhairava, an aspect of Shiva. Examples of the suffixes -an (masc.) and -i (fem.) can be seen for example in marutan (record 3388, a masculine name) vs. maruti (record 4340, feminine) and tevan (3772, masc.) vs. tevi (4341, fem.). The use of deity names as personal names is common, for example Tevan/Tevi (Deva/Devi, 'god'/'goddess'), Subramanyan, Suryan, Krsnan (Krishna), Visnu, Sivan (Shiva), Umai (Uma), and Narayanan (an aspect of Vishnu, and by far one of the most popular given names in the Concordance, with nearly 200 entries). The submitter prefers the transliteration Vairavi, as it seems to encourage the correct pronunciation.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

12: Isabel Ximénez de Gaucin - New Name Change

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in July of 2009, via the East.

Old Item: Isabel Jimenez de Gaucin, to be released.
Submitter desires a feminine name.
No changes.

Her current name was registered in April 1998, via the Middle.

She was told at the time that she couldn't spell her surname with an 'X', but she has since found documentation which she believes supports her desired spelling.

The article "Visita a todas las casas del Albaicin en el año 1569" by Juan Martínez Ruiz (Antroponimia, Etnología y Lingüística, Cuadernos de la Alhambra No. 15-17, 1979-1981) lists for example Hernán Ximénez and Lope Ximénez, among many others. (This is a publication based on a 16th century census-like record from the archives of the Alhambra; the submitter translates the title as "Visitors in all the houses of the Albaicin in the year 1569".) In addition, Vestiduras Pontificales del Arzobispo Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada. S. XIII ('Religious vestments of Archbishop Rodrigo Ximenez de Rada, 13th century'; Ministerio de Cultura, unknown date and author/editor) consistently writes the 13th century Spanish bishop's surname as Ximénez. The rest of the name is grandfathered.

Eastern Crown is not certain that the cited sources preserve original spellings, but nobody came up with anything better -- in fact, nobody had any comments on this name -- so she is forwarding this for the experts to handle.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

13: John Ruxton - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in September of 2006, via the East

Argent, two chevronels between three shamrocks gules.

His name was registered in Sep. 2006, via the East.

His previous device submission of Azure, three boathooks in pall, tips outward, argent was returned in Kingdom because of documentation and recognizability problems. This is a complete redesign.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

14: Katelin de Monro - New Name & New Device

Azure, on a bend sinister argent three butterflies bendwise gules and in canton a dog's head caboshed argent.

No major changes.

Katelin is dated to 1198 (Catlin) under Katharine in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyHZ.html).

de Monro is found "several times in record" in the 14th and 15th centuries, according to Black s.n. Munro. The entry also dates this spelling to Robert I, 1338, and 1341-72. In addition, Monro is the registered surname of the submitter's father (Collin Monro of Tadcaster, Jun. 2006 East).

This name is clear of Catelin Munro of Ailsa (Apr. 1998 Calontir) by removal of the third element.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

15: Mieszko Lesieński - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Language (Polish) most important.
Culture (Polish) most important.

Mieszko was a name popular among the ruling families of Poland and Silesia, e.g. Mieszko I (10th century), the first Christian ruler of Poland, and Mieszko, Knight of the Teutonic Order and Bishop of Neutra and Veszprom (14th century). An apparently Germanic spelling is Miesko. This information is from JJ Lerski et al.: Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1966, pp. 354-6; accessed via Google Books limited preview: http://books.google.com/books?id=S6aUBuWPgywC), and C Cawley: Medieval Lands, 1st ed. (Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, 2006-2008; http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm and http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SILESIA.htm).

For what (little) it's worth, the patronymic surname Mieszkowski is associated with a date of 1580 on p. 231 of Herby Rodów Polskich by Paszkiewicza et al. (Orbis Books, London, 1990).

Lesieński is a header in Witolda Taszyckiego: Słownik Staropolskich Nazw Osobowych, Vol. VII Supplement (Polska Akademia Nauk Instytut Języka Polskiego, 1984). The entry lists a Janek ... Lesszensky 1407 and Petrus Lesszensky 1423, which appear to the consulting herald (who can't read Polish) to be Germanic or Latin forms rather than Polish. Any help from the experts would be appreciated.

Eastern Crown didn't find anything quite like the submitted surname, however: the closest the index offers is Lesiński, and the associated dates are post-period. This is also the closest that Hoffman's Polish Surnames gets (Polish Genealogical Society of America, Chicago, 1997), without dates, but with the information that "Les-" means 'woods, forest', so the name probably has something to do with trees...

All that said, *some* spelling of the name is undoubtedly period, so this is being forwarded with an appeal for help from the experts.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

16: Nafisa Hatun bint Abdullah - New Name Change From Holding Name

OSCAR NOTE: 'Old Item' should contain the former primary name. The form that is there is not a registered name.

Old Item: Jennifer of the East, to be released.
Client requests authenticity for 16th cent. Turkish (Ottoman).
Language (16th cent. Turkish (Ottoman)) most important.
Culture (16th cent. Turkish (Ottoman)) most important.

Her previous name submission of Keaiji no Nyûdô Nyôdai was returned (Nov. 2004 R-East) for presumption against the first female Zen master in Japan, and for documentation problems. This is a completely different name.

Nafisa is listed under "Feminine Isms [Given Names]" in Da'ud ibn Auda's "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices (2nd ed.)" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm).

The structure of the name is based on "Sixteenth-Century Turkish Names" by Ursula Whitcher (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ursula/ottoman/). The section on name structure gives Emine Hatun bint Mehmed as an example of a feminine name using the title Hatun 'lady' or 'Mrs.' bint Abdullah is also from Ursula's article, which in the list of women's full names has over a dozen examples of this patronymic, including Nefise bint Abdullah. (The submitter will accept this spelling of the given name if it is more accurate.)

It's unclear to Eastern Crown whether Hatun is registerable or not. It's not on the list of alternate titles, so it's not protected, but the College has historically been leery of registering anything title-like as part of a name. She feels unqualified to make this determination, and so is forwarding the name unchanged for Pelican's decision.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

17: Selve d'Aure, Shire of La - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in February of 2005, via the East

Or, three pine trees vert and on a chief indented azure a laurel wreath between two mullets Or.

The group's name was registered in Feb. 2005, via the East.

A petition signed by the seneschal and four other officers has been provided.

Correction (2009-Apr-08 12:04:45): Turns out this should've been listed as a resub device: their previous submission was returned for a redraw on the Sep. 2005 LoAR, because the laurel wreath wasn't wreath-like enough.


This item was on the 07-2009 LoAR

18: Sorcha Dhonn of Brennisteinvatn - New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Meaning (Sorcha + brown + branch name) most important.

Sorcha is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Sorcha.shtml) as the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic spelling of the name of four women in the Annals, dated 1480, 1500, 1530, and 1639.

Dhonn is based on the masculine descriptive byname Donn 'brown' (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Donn.shtml), which is found for nine men in the Annals, dated between 1120 and 1475. This is the Early Modern Irish Gaelic nominative form, with lenition added as described in Sharon Krossa's "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#descriptivebyname).

The SCA branch name Brennisteinvatn, Shire of was registered in Dec. 1995, via the Middle (though it is now in Ealdormere). Per precedent, registered SCA branch names can be used in bynames regardless of the lingual mix thus created (Kazimierz of Loch Ruadh, 10/2006 A-Ansteorra). According to Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century)" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/lateirish/ormond-patterns.html#Patterns), the use of a locative byname with an Irish name is rare, but there are a few examples (in Latin).


Here ends, in this Feast day of Saint Mathilde, this East Kingdom letter of intent.

Yours in service,

Brunissende

Blue Tyger Herald

blue.tyger@eastkingdom.org

Bibliography

Bahlow, Hans; translated by Edda Gentry. Dictionary of German Names, 2nd ed. Max Kade Institute, Madison, Wisconsin, 2002.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland. New York Public Library, 1989.

Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen. C.A. Starke-Verlag, Limburg, 1957-60.

Dauzat, Albert and Marie-Thérèse Morlet. Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de famille et prénoms de France. Librairie Larousse, Paris, 1989.

Morlet, Marie-Thérèse. Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille. Librairie Académique Perrin, 1997.

Withycombe, E.G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Third edition. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1979.


OSCAR counts 8 New Names, 1 New Name Change, 1 New Household Name, 7 New Devices and 3 New Badges. These 20 items are chargeable, Laurel should receive $60 for them. OSCAR counts 2 New Holding Name Changes. These 2 items are not chargeable. There are a total of 22 items submitted on this letter.

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