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Palimpsest Other dated 2017-11-22

Right noble and worshipful Juliana Laurel, Alys Pelican, and Cormac Wreath, I recommend me to you.

This letter proposes several new alternative titles.

1: Award or Grant of Arms - New Other

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Gentle

I propose Gentle as a new gender-neutral English title at the level of an Award or Grant of Arms.

The Oxford English Dictionary s.v. gentle, adj. and n. says that when applied to persons, gentle means "in heraldic use: Having the rank or status of `gentleman', the distinguishing mark of which is the right to bear arms". Thus, the adjective is precisely appropriate for a person at the level of the award of arms.

Sense 3(b) of the OED entry quotes Shakespeare's Two Gentlemen of Verona dated prior to 1616: "What think'st thou of the gentle Protheus." The Middle English Dictionary s.v. gentil adds two examples of forms of the word used with given names from Chaucer: c. 1375, "O worthy, gentil Alisandre" and c. 1390, "Now telle on, gentil Roger". Thus, using this word in combination with a given name is appropriate.


2: Duchy - New Other

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Doge

I propose Doge as a new masculine Italian title at the level of a Duke. I thank Lady Maridonna Benvenuti for her research on this matter.

Florio's 1598 Florentine Italian/ English dictionary, A Worlde of Wordes (http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/florio1598/), s.v. Doge gives the definition "Doge, a title that only the Dukes of Venice and Genoa have." Similarly, s.v. Dogaressa, the definition is "Dogaressa, The Dukes wife of Venice is so called, of Doge, as much as Dutches."

Page 72 of the 1580 book Historia fiorentina by Piero Buoninsegni refers to the Doge d'Osterichi ('Duke of Austria') (https://books.google.com/books?id=-4f4aNdgyo8C&pg=PA72&lpg=PA72&dq=Buoninsegni+Doge+d%27Osterichi#v= onepage&q=Buoninsegni%20Doge%20d%27Osterichi&f=false).


3: Duchy - New Other

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Doxe

I propose Doxe as a new masculine Italian title at the level of a Duke. This is a form of Doge used in northern Italy in our period. I thank Lady Maridonna Benvenuti for her research on this matter.

Doxe is dated to 1400-1524, 1512, and 1560 in Domenico Bortolan, Vocabolario del Dialetto Antico Vicentino (Dal Secolo XIV a tutto il Secolo XVI), 1893 (http://archive.org/details/vocabolariodeldi00bortuoft).

A selection from the diaries of Marin Sanudo, recorded between the 1490s and the 1530s, is available at https://archive.org/details/idiariidimarino04sanugoog . The full text has several examples of the related title vicedoxe, 'vice-doge', such as <vicedoxe sier Polo Donado>.


4: Peerage Order - New Other

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Doge

A citizen of Ansteorra proposes Doge as a new masculine Italian title at the peerage level, and writes, "The Doge was an elected leader and not a noble by birth or grant of title. The Doge ruled the independent state, but with many restrictions that a noble ruler would not have. They were subject to rules imposed by councils and could not leave the state for any reason. It is the fact that they were a civil leader and not a noble by birth that distinguishes the Doge from being equivalent to a Duke or other noble."

For a detailed discussion of the election process for the medieval Doge, including the possible electors, see Jay S. Coggins and C. Federico Perali, "64% Majority Rule in Ducal Venice: Voting for the Doge", Public Choice,

Vol. 97, No. 4 (1998), pp. 709-723 (http://apec.umn.edu/sites/apec.umn.edu/files/64-majority-rule-in-ducal-venice.pdf).

The word appears in Florio's 1598 Florentine Italian/ English dictionary, A Worlde of Wordes (http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/florio1598/), s.v. Doge, with the definition "Doge, a title that only the Dukes of Venice and Genoa have." Similarly, s.v. Dogaressa, the definition is "Dogaressa, The Dukes wife of Venice is so called, of Doge, as much as Dutches."


5: Peerage Order - New Other

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Magnifico

I propose Magnifico as a new masculine Italian title at the peerage order level. This title was used by patricians in Venice. I thank Niccolo Falconetto, Master of the Laurel and the Order of Defense in Northshield, for suggesting this title and providing detailed research.

Patricia Fortini Brown, in Private Lives in Renaissance Venice (Yale University Press, 2004, pp. 5-7) describes the roles and titles of the leading citizens of Venice:

The nobility or order of patricians was formed at that time [1297] from only those families that had been active on the Great Council during the past four years. All others, even if they had previously played a role in the council, as well as those who would immigrate to the city later, were to be excluded from the governing class. Adjustments were made over the next three decades, with a major infusion of thirty families following the War of Chioggia at the end of the fourteenth century, but from that time forward the nobility had remained stable and virtually impenetrable.

The male members of this noble caste - such as the lordly figure of Nicolo Zen, depicted by Titian in a toga of rich black velvet lined with lynx - called themselves gentlemen or zentilhuomini - Venetian dialect for gentilhuomini - and were addressed by the term clarissimo or magnifico. They all sat on the Great Council, and some in the Senate, where they conducted foreign policy, passed the laws, acted as judge and jury, and elected all public officials, including the doge, from among their ranks. In the early years of the republic most were actively engaged in trade; later on they increasingly lived off their investments. This group comprised about 4.5 percent of the population.

[...]

Below the patriciate was the order of cittadini or citizens, and - if less exalted - it was no less exclusive.

[...]

Cittadini also formed the banche - the ruling groups of the rich and powerful Scuole Grandi, comprising six large religious lay confraternities that held considerable property throughout the city. With their families, the cittadini accounted for another 5 to 8 percent of the population. Like patricians, the male cittadini dressed in long togas in public - usually black, but red if they held certain offices - and visitors to the city would not easily have distinguished one caste from the other. By the end of the sixteenth century, they too were sometimes addressed by the title magnifico.

Florio's 1598 Florentine Italian/ English dictionary, A Worlde of Wordes, s.v. Magnifico (http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/florio1598/234.html) gives the definition "Also a Magnifico or chiefe man or one of the chiefe men in Venice."

A selection from the diaries of Marin Sanudo, recorded between the 1490s and the 1530s, is available at https://archive.org/details/idiariidimarino04sanugoog . The full text shows many examples of Magnifico used together with given names, such as "Magnifico Imbraim", "Magnifico Murat", and "Magnifico Murath". More complex constructions include "Magnifico Murath Chiechaia" and "il magnifico cavalier domino Francesco da Porto".


Written at the Barony of Cynnabar on the feast of Saint Cecilia in the year of grace mmxvii.

Ursula Georges

Palimpsest Herald.


OSCAR counts 5 Others. These 5 items may or may not require payment. There are a total of 5 items submitted on this letter.

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