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Outlands LoI dated 2017-01-23

From the Office of Rampart Herald

THL Khalidah bint Yahya'a (Nicole Riviezzo)

Unto the Sovereigns and members of the College of Arms of the Society, does Khalidah bint Yahya'a, Rampart Herald send her greetings.

What follows is the January 2017 Letter of Intent for the Kingdom of the Outlands.

I would like to thank Green Anchor & The NE Calontir Commenting Group, ffride wlffsdotter, Kolosvari Arpadne Julia, Michael Gerard Curtememoire, and all of the heralds who were kind enough to contribute to internal commentary on OSCAR.

It is my intent to register this January the following items from the Outlands' College of Heralds.

1: Adriana Lopes de Rodas - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in November of 2012, via the Outlands.

Azure, a bend sinister Or between a wolf rampant and two mullets argent

2: Miklos Kovacs - New Name & New Device

Per pale gules and sable, a gryphon and a horse combattant, a point pointed ployé argent

Sound (Magyar) most important.
Language (Magyar) most important.
Culture (Magyar) most important.
Meaning (Magyar) most important.

Miklos: common Hungarian form of Nicholas, originating with the Christian St Nicholas

Kovacs: occupational byname from Hungary meaning Smith

Additional Documentation support by Kolosvari Arpadne Julia:

Miklos is a masculine name dated to 1560 in Walraven van Nijmegen's "Hungarian Personal Names of the 16th Century" ( Kovacs is based on the same author's "Hungarian Names 101" (, which mentions Kovács as a (modern header spelling of a) byname meaning 'smith'. Period spellings listed in the article are 1389 Kouach, 1413, 1511, 1569 Kowach, 1444, 1557 Kowacz, 1467 Kovach, and 1513 kouac.

Note that the modern 'cs' spelling for the /ch/ sound as in 'church' is grey-area at best. (Kázmér s.n. Kovács has 1649 Kouacs.) In period, there were two opposing schools, and they confusingly used 'cz' differently: the Catholics used 'ch' for /ch/ and 'cz' for /ts/, while the Protestants used 'cz' for /ch/ and 'tz' for /ts/. This is why about half of Kázmér's citations s.n. Kovács end in -cz, and about half end in -ch.

Note also that a man named Nicholas Smith would've been Kovach Miklos in a Hungarian-language record, or Nicholaus Kovach in a Latin record. A construction like Miklos Kovach is not implausible in late-period records, but it would've indicated the man's actual occupation, rather than his name.

3: Yamamoto Cristóbal - New Name & New Device

Per pale sable and Or, three triangles conjoined one and two and a bordure counterchanged

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Sound (Late 16th C Spanish (given) and Japanese (family)) most important.
Language (Late 16th C Spanish (given) and Japanese (family)) most important.
Culture (Late 16th C Spanish (given) and Japanese (family)) most important.

Cristóbal, Given name from 16th Century Spanish Names by Elsbeth Anne Roth,

Yamamoto, Family name found in An Online Japanese Miscellany; Japanese Names by Anthony J. Bryant,, 9October2016

Name is found on the chart "Some surnames of families active prior to 1600" near the beginning of the web page.

The combination of a Spanish given name and Japanese family name is documented in the following document (highlights by submitter), published in Reggio in 1585. We acknowledge that this is a limited case however there are four separate individuals named in the document, all with the same name pattern. Submitter is choosing a late 16th century Japanese persona so this pattern is feasible.

"Record of the Tensho Mission to Europe" is a 9 page brochure documenting the visit of four boys to the Pope (actually Popes as Gregory XIII dies during their visit). The complete brochure is owned by the Tokyo National Museum and is available, in its entirety, at®io n=&era=¢ury=&cptype=&owner=&pos=857&num=4

Below is an excerpt from the synopsis:

"This is a brochure on the mission of boys, who were sent to the Pope by Christian feudal lords in Kyushu, namely, Otomo Yoshishige (Sorin) of Bungo and Arima Harunobu and Omura Sumitada of Hizen on the advice of Valignano, a Jesuit missionary. The purpose of Valignano was to introduce new Christians in the East to the Pope and have the delegates see and experience at first hand the reality and majesty of the Christian world and thereby promote missionary activities in Japan by Japanese people."

The mission of four Japanese boys, namely, Ito Mancio, Chijiwa Miguel, Nakaura Julio and Hara Martino, left Nagasaki and arrived at Rome in February 1585 where they had an audience with Pope Gregorius XIII."

Submitter will allow swapping of given and family names for purposes of registration.

Additional thoughts and documentation given by ffride wlffsdotter & Michael Gerard Curtememoire:

FW: In the past, we've registered Portuguese names, transcribed into Japanese, and then transliterated into English. But I'm not sure how the submitter's documentation suggests Spanish names were also used? For precedent-diving purposes: Kitajima Ichirou Machiyasu (where Machiyasu is from Portuguese "Matthias") was registered in May 2016.

Catalogus regularium et secularium qui in Iapponiae by Antonio Francisco Cardim, 1646 ( has:

p. 56 <Andreas Yamamoto> martyred 1629

p. 65 <Paulus Yamamoto Ficondayu> martyred 1632

p. 73 <Dionysius Yamamoto> martyred 1633

p. 62 <Christoforus Kifei> martyred 1630.

These are all Latin-language records though, so they use Latin name order. But <Christoforus Yamamoto> would be the Latin-language way it'd be recorded. But I haven't found any examples of Cristóbal being used. Closest is the name of the Portuguese Jesuit missionary, Cristóvão Ferreira, who renounced Christianity after being tortured. In that vein there also is:

Portuguese Masculine Names from Lisbon, 1565 by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (

Christovan, 4 mentions Christovão, 55 mentions Cristovão, 1 mention.

MGC: How? The synopsis at the link given, and quoted in the head-matter here, indeed shows the names <Ito Mancio>, <Chijiwa Miguel>, <Nakaura Julio>, and <Hara Martino>. At least the last three look like Japanese surname + Spanish given name. This would be the same pattern as the submitted <Yamamoto Cristóbal>.

FW: That's my point, they're not Spanish. Ito Mancio, Chijiwa Miguel, Nakaura Julio and Hara Martino are actually, if you follow the link to the Tokyo National Museum, Ito Mancio, Chijiwa Miguel, Nakaura Julião and Hara Martinão. The issue is the difference between the language their names were recorded in -- because they were a big deal at the time -- and what they would have recognised as their names, surely. For instance, here's a print from 1586:

With: "Mancius, Julianus, Martinus, und Michael" in German. But that surely wouldn't be evidence for mixed Japanese-German names, would it? The trick I think is going to be finding an example of "Cristóbal" in a source that isn't Christoforus.

Oh! Obvious in hindsight -- the submitter is thinking about "Christopher and Cosme" the Japanese sailors.

Japanese Shipwrecks in British Columbia - Myths and Facts The Question of Cultural Exchanges with the Northwest Coast of America by Grant Keddie says:

"On November 17, 1587 Thomas Cavendish captured two Japanese from the Spanish ship Santa Anna at 23 3/4 degrees N.: "He tooke out of the great shippe two young lads borne in Japan, which could both wright and reade their own language, the eldest being about 20 years olde was named Christopher, the other was called Cosmus, about 17 yeeres of age, both of very good capacitie" (Irving 1927, p. 216).


So, there's your Spanish-Japanese language connection before 1600. Problem solved there, though they're only mentioned by their given name, with no indication of name-order.

That Hasekura Tsunenaga (支倉常長), who also travelled to Spain in our grey-period, was called Philippvs Franciscvs Faxicvra in Latin, though, does imply the use of Western name-order of given name-surname.

Philippvs Franciscvs Faxicvra, 1615:

Thus ends the January 2017 Letter of Intent for the Kingdom of the Outlands.

In Service,

THL Khalidah bint Yahya'a

Rampart Herald

OSCAR counts 2 New Names and 3 New Devices. These 5 items are chargeable, Laurel should receive $20 for them. There are a total of 5 items submitted on this letter.

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