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East LoI dated 2007-11-23

Unto Elisabeth Laurel, Jeanne Marie Wreath, Margaret Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Tanczos Istvan, Blue Tyger Herald!

This is my last letter as Blue Tyger Herald. The next letter will be issued by Brunissende Dragonette de Broceliande, who has agreed to succeed me. It is my intention to remain as a commenting herald.

It is the intent of Easterners to register the following items. Unless otherwise noted, the submitter has no desire for authenticity, allows any changes, and allows a holding name.

This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

1: Amina of Songhay - Resub Name & Resub Device

Or, an African head and on a chief sable three cowrie shells argent.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No changes.

Her previous name submission of Amina al-Dyula an-Nisa al-Songhayya was returned on the Dec. 2004 LoAR for grammar and documentation problems.

Amina is a feminine ism (given name) listed under Aminah in Da'ud ibn Auda's "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices (2nd ed.) (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm). It's also found in Juliana de Luna's "Andalusian Names: Arabs in Spain" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/andalusia.html#Womens).

Songhay is an African kingdom or aristocracy which existed in the 16th century, and which the Arabs knew about. Ibn Khaldun, writing before 1408, describes a group of people as the Zaghaay or Zaghawa (using both terms more or less interchangeably), according to Hopkins, J.F.P., trans.: Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History; Markus Weiner Publishers, 2000, p. 320. Many scholars believe these to be the same people as al-Sa`di's ahl Saghay 'the Songhay gens' (in Dierk Lange: "Les Rois de Gao-Sane et les Almoravides", The Journal of African History, Vol. 32, No. 2. (1991), p. 254). Desmond Clark et. al.: The Cambridge History of Africa (Cambridge University Press, 1975; found on Google Books) translates ahl Songhay as 'people of Songhay' and explains that "these were members of the traditional Songhay aristocracy". Thus, an Arabic byname meaning 'of/from Songhay' should be plausible, so that its Lingua Anglica translation should be registerable.

Her previous device, Or, a camel and on a chief gules three cowrie shells argent, was returned on the Dec. 2004 LoAR because the cowrie shells were deemed unrecognizable. This is a total redesign and redrawing.

If successful, this will be the defining registration of cowrie shells. They were known to period Europe: according to "The Cowrie Currencies of West Africa" by Marion Johnson (Journal of African History, XI. 3 [1970]; part II, p. 331), "the Portuguese were beginning to bring cowries to the Guinea coast by sea" at the time when Leo Africanus visited Timbuctu "in the second decade of the sixteenth century". These European traders were closely enough involved in cowrie exchange that the common units of counting them were named in Portuguese: "On the Forcados River by about 1520, cowries were being counted in galinhas (hens) of 40, and cabres (goats) ... of 910 cowries." (Ibid, part I, p. 42-43.) Also, the 14th century Arab historian Ibn Battuta reported on the exchange rate between cowries and the gold dinar (part II p. 331). Cowries were known in Britain in pre-historic times: British Archaeology magazine's Aug. 2001 issue (found online at http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba60/news.shtml) says a cowrie shell and boar's tusk necklace was found in a stone-age excavation near Edinburgh. According to "Trivia in the United Kingdom" (http://ion.le.ac.uk/~ect/cowries/Taxonomy.html), there are two species of cowrie native to European and British coastlines. The Vikings used imported cowrie shell beads from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, according to a post from Gunnora Hallakarva to an email list, archived in Stefan's Florilegium (http://www.florilegium.org/files/ACCESS/beads-msg.html), quoting from "Beads made of cowrie shells from the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean found on Gotland" by Gustaf Tortzig in Trade and Exchange in Prehistory: Studies in Honor of Berta Stjernquist (Birgitta Hardh, et al., eds., Lunds Universitets Historiska Museum, 1988; pp. 287-294).


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

2: Amina of Songhay - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in March of 2008, via the East

(Fieldless) A cowrie shell argent.

The name appears above, as does the documentation for the shells.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

3: Angharad verch Rees - New Name Change From Holding Name & New Badge

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in March of 2008, via the East.

(Fieldless) A goutte quarterly azure and argent.

Old Item: Angharad of Anglespur, to be released.
Submitter desires a feminine name.
Language (Welsh 13th c.) most important.
Culture (Welsh 13th c.) most important.

No changes to the given name. All changes allowed for the patronymic.

Her previous name submission, Angharad y Rhosyn ferch Rhain, was returned on the Apr. 2003 LoAR for presumption, because without evidence for a byname meaning 'of the rose' in Welsh, this element could only be seen as a claim to membership in the Order of the Rose. Her device, Quarterly azure and argent all goutty counterchanged, a rose purpure barbed and seeded proper, was registered under the holding name.

Angharad is a header on p. 10 of Gruffudd, dated to 1162 as the mother of Owain Gruffudd. Also, Tangwystyl's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/welsh13.html) has the spelling Angharat. verch: Tangwystyl (op. cit.) notes that the article's source uses Latin 'filia', but there are other documents of the period which use 'verch'.

Rees is dated to 1326 in Morgan & Morgan p. 186 s.n. Rhys.

Both Angharad and Rees are found in Tangwystyl's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names (in English Contexts)" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh16.html), though that doesn't give the 13th Century name she wants.

If de Ros, a locative referring to Rhos (a cantref) could be added to the name, the submitter would be quite happy. She definitely wants the preposition in there, however (she doesn't want anything that sounds like "reesros"), and the submitting herald was worried that the mixing of Welsh 'verch' with Latin 'de' would be a problem.

This name is clear of conflict with Angharad ferch Rhys ap Morgan Genaur Glyn (May 1993 East), Angharad ferch Rhys ap Rhodri (Dec. 1989 Atlantia), and Tangwystl Angharad verch Rhys (Aug. 2002 Outlands), by removal of a name element.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

4: Anssem van Rienen - New Name & New Device

Sable, a griffin contourny and a label argent

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (Dutch) most important.
Culture (Dutch) most important.

'Anssem' is a masculine name dated to 1478-81 in Aryanhwy merch Catmael: "15th Century Dutch Names" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/dutch/dutch15.html); the Notes column says "This is from Anselm."

'van Rienen' is found as a locative surname dated to 1422 in the same article.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

5: Arabella Grant - New Name & New Device

Or, a pall inverted purpure between two butterflies gules and two axes in saltire sable.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Sound (air-a-bell-a Grant) most important.

Arabella is dated to 1255 and 1575-1615 in Withycombe p. 29 s.n. Arabel.

Grant is a header in Black p. 324; dated cites include Maurice Grant 1330 and Richard Grant 1394. It is also dated to 1221 in R&W p. 202 s.n. Grant.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

6: Auriana filia Germani - New Name & New Device

Or, a scorpion gules and on a chief sable three eggs Or.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Client requests authenticity for Germanic Gaul language/culture.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about the given name. (The submission form notes: Keep Auriana -- allows other changes.)

Auriana is a header in Morlet vol. 2 p. 23, dated to 678 as a feminine name.

filia: Latin for 'daughter'. Germani is the genitive of Germanus, which is a header on p. 56 of Morlet vol. 2, dated to 578, 873, etc. as a masculine name.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

7: Ávaldr Valbjarnarson - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.

Both name elements are from Geirr Bassi. Ávaldr is a masculine name found on p. 8, and Valbj{o,}rn is a masculine name on p. 15. The patronymic is constructed according to the instructions on p. 18.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

8: Caitríona MacLeod of Kilchoan - New Name & New Device

Per chevron vert semy of bees proper and argent, a wooden spoon proper.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.

Sound and spelling are most important to the submitter. Her previous name submission of Caitríona MacLeod was returned in kingdom for conflict with Caitlin MacLeod (June 1989 via Calontir) and Caitlin nic Leod (May 1987 via the West).

Caitríona is given as the (modern) Irish Gaelic form in OCM s.n. Caiterína. Catrina is dated to 1551 in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in Scottish Records" under post-1400 Katherine. Also, Caitrina is dated to 1467 in "Scottish Gaelic Given Names for Women" by Sharon L. Krossa (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/women/caitrina.shtml).

MacLeod is a header in Black, dated to 1227.

Kilchoan is a header in Johnston's "Place-Names of Scotland"; the entry states "(Ardnamord Kiltearn) from St. Cungan or Comhghain, uncle of St. Fillan, c. 750. The modern form of the name is seen in Kirkcowan."


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

9: Clara Beaumont - New Name & New Device

Azure, in pall a mouse statant between three tulips argent.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No changes.

Beaumont is found in Hitching & Hitching 1601 p. xxii.

Clara is a header in Withycombe p. 67, dated to 1210 and 1379. Closer to the surname's time period, it's also found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/london1582.html).


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

10: Corwin MacCamie - New Name Change From Holding Name

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in March of 2008, via the East.

Old Item: Corwyn of Carlsby, to be released.
Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Sound most important.

'Corwin' is an SCA-compatible English name.

MacCamie is a header in Black, p. 464; dated spellings include McCamie 1538 and Makkamy 1547.

The identical name submission with a y instead of i in the given name) was returned on the Sept. 2002 LoAR (R-Calontir) for being two steps from period practice: there is one 'weirdness' for the SCA-compatible given name and, per then-current precedent (Katrina Rosehearty, 09/01 A-Caid), combining English and Scots was also a 'weirdness'. The latter precedent has since been overturned: "names combining Scots and English forms are no longer considered a step from period practice" (Michael Duncan of Hadley, 04/04 A-Caid). Therefore, this name should now be registerable.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

11: Deirdre de Iuei - New Name & New Device

Quarterly gules and argent, in bend sinister two ivy leaves vert.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Meaning (Deirdre of Ivey (Ivy)) most important.

Per the Aug. 2006 LoAR (Deirdre Scot, A-Æthelmearc), "Deirdre is no longer SCA-compatible; instead it is registerable as a normalized attested 12th C Gaelic name."

de Iuei is a locative surname dated to 1161-2 in R&W p. 250 s.n. Ivey.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

12: Deroch Negotiatrix Vini - New Name Change From Holding Name

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in March of 2008, via the East.

Old Item: Deroch of Northern Outpost, to be released.
Submitter desires a feminine name.
Meaning (Deroch the wine broker/merchant/wholesaler) most important.

There's a note in the margin of the submission form which ends 'Latin grammar is fine', but the first part is cut off beyond decipherability on the photocopies.

Her original name submission of Deroch the Wine Trader was returned on the Feb. 2007 LoAR because the earliest citation found for 'trader' was from the 16th century.

Deroch is identified as a 9th-11th c. Breton feminine name in Academy of S. Gabriel report 896 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/869), citing De Courson, M. Aurélien, Cartulaire de L'Abbaye de Redon en Bretagne (Paris: Imprimerie Imperiale, 1963).

The above-mentioned S. Gabriel report says: "In these documents, women were usually identified either by relationship to a husband or father or by occupation." Negotiator vini is intended to be such an occupation, indicating a broker / merchant / wholesaler in wine. The New College Latin & English Dictionary by John C. Traupman (Bantam, New York) defines negotiator -oris (p. 193) as 'businessman; banker; salesman, dealer', and gives vinum -i (p. 332) for 'wine'. The consulting herald believes that therefore "negotiator vini" should be 'broker/dealer in wine'.

The name was changed at kingdom from Deroch Negotiator Vini 'Negotiator' is a masculine word, inappropriate for use with a feminine given name. The correct feminine form is negotiatrix, so kingdom has changed the byname accordingly. One commenter suggested mercator as a more common title for a merchant or wholesaler (based on Cassell's Latin Dictionary), saying that negotiator "has the connotation of a large commercial concern."

Kingdom feel unqualified to judge the merits of either word, please help.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

13: Diana the Wanderer - New Name & New Device

Per pale sable and Or, two dogs respectant passant counterchanged.

Submitter desires a feminine name.

Diana is a header in Withycombe, dated to 1580.

"The Wanderer" is an SCA-compatible byname (Joel the Wanderer, 12/01 A-Artemisia).


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

14: Dionysia Birdclever de Brigge - New Name & New Device

Azure, a bend sinister Or, overall an African gray parrot close proper tailed gules.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Sound most important.

She will accept 'de la Brigge' but not 'dil Brigge'.

Dionysia is based on Withycombe s.n. Denise, which dates Dionisia 1303, Dionycia 1303, and Deonysia 1449. The submitted spelling seems a reasonable variant. Dionysia is also dated to 1369 in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyAG.html), s.n. Denise.

Birdclever is dated to 1427 in R&W s.n. Bird. de Brigge is based on R&W s.n. Bridge, which dates de la Brigge 1275 and dil Brigge 1327. The dropping of the article after a preposition is shown for example under Brill, de Brahille 1190, and under Cambridge, de Cambrigge 1227. Aryanhwy's "Names in the 1319 Subsidy Roll of London" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/surlondon1319.html) has de Bregge and de Brugge.

One commenter noted that the African gray parrot is properly (a fairly dark) gray, not argent, and the red tail is part of its natural coloration. Other commenters wondered whether this species was known to Europeans before 1600 (as required by RfS VII.4.). Kingdom is tempted to reblazon this as "a popinjay argent tailed gules", but is leaving the decision to Wreath.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

15: Donovan Shinnock - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in October of 2004, via the East

Per pale sable and vert, on a chief argent a fox passant gules.

His name was registered in Oct. 2004, via the East.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

16: Ela Bathory - New Name & New Device

Azure semy-de-lys, an open book argent.

Submitter has no desire as to gender.
Sound (Ayla Bathory) most important.

Ela is a Hungarian masculine name, probably a pet form of Elias or Elek; it's dated as a given name to 1213, 1214, and 1221 in Fehertoi p. 273 s.n. Ela, and to 1518 and 1522 as an unmarked patronymic in Kazmer p. 325 s.n. Ela.

Bathory is a locative surname dated as early as 1449 and as late as 1592 in this spelling, and in other spellings to many dates between 1421 and well past period, in Kazmer p. 105 s.n. Bátori. (There are 63 pre-17th c. cites.) The submission form has 'Báthory' for the submitted name, but this appears to be the result of a misunderstanding on the part of the submitting herald: he added the diacritical mark because the header form has it. However, the header in Kazmer is almost always the modern spelling, useful as a guide to pronunciation but not as a guide to historic written forms. Only one period citation has the long vowel marked: Báthori István 1575. This is over 300 years after the clear evidence for Ela as a given name, so kingdom has dropped the diacritic. (By the 16th century, unmarked patronymics using otherwise old names are very likely inherited, so the Kazmer citations for Ela don't really move the dates any closer.)

There's a note in the documentation section: "She also gives permission to conflict for her husband Ilias Bathory", with a signature immediately below on the generic form's signature line. It doesn't say anything else.

One commenter at kingdom worried about conflict with Elizabeth Bathory, the "bloody countess." The given names are unrelated and have a different number of syllables, which is enough to clear conflict.

This device is clear of Yale University (Dec. 1994 via Laurel): Azure, an open book argent charged with Hebrew letters sable, with one CD for the strewn charges and another for removing the Hebrew letters, since precedent says that Yale's letters are equivalent to tertiary charges (Branwen filia Iohannis de Monmouth, 04/2002 A-East).


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

17: Emeline la Corte - New Name & New Device

Per pale sable and gules, a sword between four daisies argent.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
Language (French) most important.
Culture (French) most important.
Meaning (the short) most important.

Emeline is a feminine name from the 1292 Paris Census ("An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" by Colm Dubh, http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html).

la Corte is intended as the feminine form of le Cort, which is dated to 1279 in R&W p. 113 s.n. Court. Both Dauzat p. 52 s.n. Court and Morlet p. 566 s.n. Lacourte give "the short" as a possible derivation for the name, but they give no dates.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

18: Francesco Giovanni Raffaello da Venezia - New Name & New Device

Azure, three chevronels braced and enhanced and in base a Venetian gondola argent.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Language (Italy) most important.
Culture (Italy) most important.

Francesco is the 4th most common masculine name in the 1427 Florentine tax census, according to "Italian Names from Florence, 1427" by Ferrante LaVolpe (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/).

Giovanni is the most common masculine name in the same source. Francesco and Giovanni are also both found in "Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names" by Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/)

Raffaello is a masculine name intended here as an unmarked patronymic. It occurs once in Ferrante's list, and there are 381 examples in the "Online Tratte of Office Holders, 1282-1532" (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/name1.html).

da Venetia is 'from Venice'. "Mercator Place Names of Italy in 1554" by Maridonna Benvenuti (http://www.maridonna.com/onomastics/mercator_place.htm) has the city's name as Venetia. Submitted as "Venezia", kingdom doesn't know enough about period Italian to tell whether the submitted (modern) Venezia is plausible or not, so has changed the locative to the documented spelling.

Arval and Talan's article also has several three-part names which may be examples of double given names: Gian Giacomo Caroldo, Pietro Paolo Querini, etc. Precedent says that "there are examples of unmarked patronymic surnames in period Italian" (Isabella Gabriele de Álora, 12/2003 A-West), so the submitted name may be explained as given + given + patronymic + locative.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

19: Gavin von Abendroth - New Name & New Device

Sable, a hawk rising wings displayed between three estoiles argent.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Sound (Gah-vin) most important.

Gavin is a header in R&W; Gaven is dated to 1631. It is also dated to 1604 in Withycombe s.n. Gawain, and to 1477 and 1577 as a Scots name in "Concerning the Names Gavin, Gawaine, Gavan, and Gabhainn" by Arval Benicoeur (http://www.medievalscotland.org/problem/names/gavin.shtml).

Abendroth is a header in Brechenmacher; de Abenrode is dated 1250 and Abentrot to 1578. If the name must be changed, he prefers the latter.

A combination of German and English is a step from period practice, but registerable (Lillian von Wolfsberg, 11/2001 A-Atlantia). The same holds for Scots and German (Siegried McClure, 04/2002 A-Atlantia).


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

20: Ibrahim al-Rashid ibn Musa - New Name & New Device

Per saltire gules and argent, two gouttes de sang.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (Arabic) most important.
Culture (Arabic) most important.

All documentation from "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" in the Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings for A.S. XXXVIII. (No author cited.) The docs summary says "p.45 says names are formal ism followed by laqab followed by nasab". Ibrahim is given as an ism on p. 50, al-Rashid is listed as a laqab on p. 54, and ibn Musa is identified as a nasab on p. 49.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

21: Ieuan ap Gwilym - New Name & New Device

Per fess argent and vert, a domestic cat sejant erect guardant gules, a bordure wavy azure.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Sound most important.

The degree of changes allowed is unclear: neither checkbox is marked on the form, but there's a note in the margin: "only those noted below", and the worksheet has both "I will accept both major and minor changes" and "I will accept only those changes noted below" checked. The specifics line on the worksheet says "addition of <ap Caerleon> only if conflict".

Ieuan is a masculine name equivalent to John dated to 1415-16 as a header entry in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn: "Snapshot of a Cantref: The Names and Naming Practices in a Mawddwy Court Roll of 1415-16" (http://www.heatherrosejones.com/names/welsh/mawddwy1415.html).

ap: Welsh patronymic link meaning 'son of'.

Gwilym is a masculine name equivalent to William from Tangwystyl's Mawddwy Court Roll article (op. cit.), dated as a header to 1415-16.

ap Caerleon: Morgan & Morgan p. 65, locative surname of a welsh town dating to Roman origins. The construction is evidenced in Bardsley s.n. Cadwalader via David ap Cadwallader dated to 1322. Client only wishes to use this element in case of conflict. [If the locative is needed to clear conflict, ap is grammatically incorrect. Aryanhwy writes: "The correct way to form a locative byname in Welsh is to simply append the place name." The only period form of the placename that commenters turned up is Karliun, dated to 1254 in "Wales at the Time of the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267" by John Garnons Williams (http://www.gwp.enta.net/walhist.html)]

[ The link to the article by Williams has since disappeared. Google has it cached at http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:6nioEJNq2LQJ:www.gwp.enta.net/walhist.html+wales+at+the+time+of +the+treaty+of+montgomery ]


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

22: Ilias Bathory - New Name & New Device

Per pale ermine and sable, a falcon striking azure

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Sound (illiash bathory) most important.

Ilias is dated to 1432-3 and 1546-1551 in Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "Names from the Royal Lines of Moldavia and Wallachia" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/other/romanian.html). It's also a possible earlier period variant of Hungarian Éliás/Illés: Fehertoi p. 277 under Elias, third subheading (Ilias) has Ilies (possible oblique case: follows Latin cum 'with') 1211, Iliaz 1219, and Ylias 1267-1270.

Bathory is a Hungarian locative surname dated as early as 1449 and as late as 1592 in this spelling, and in other spellings to many dates between 1421 and well past period, in Kazmer p. 105 s.n. Bátori. (There are 63 pre-17th c. cites.) The form has Báthory as the submitted name, but conversation with the submitter when he came to pick up revealed that the accent was only added by the consulting herald because the header form has it. (See the discussion under Ela Bathory, above.) He seemed quite amenable to dropping it, so kingdom has done so: while á is documented in late period, it's not a particularly likely spelling.

The documentation section includes the note: "He gives permission Ela Bothory permission [sic] to conflict if necessary", with a signature just below on the generic form's signature line, but says no more than that.

There's a possible conflict with Annys of Trimaris (Nov. 2001 Trimaris): Per bend Or and barry wavy Or and azure, a heron volant bendwise wings addorsed azure. There's one CD for changes to the field, but it's doubtful whether there's one for posture, and there hasn't been a specific ruling on a type difference between falcons and herons. They are in different "groups" as defined on the Nov. 2003 Cover letter (regular-shaped vs. crane-shaped birds), so there hopefully is a CD between them.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

23: Irene Lenoir - New Household Name

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in April of 1990, via the East

Chateau Lenoir

No changes.

Her name was registered in Apr. 1990, via the East. Lenoir is the submitter's registered surname. Chateau is a generic group identifier meaning 'house'.

The modern French is Château, which apparently represents an original Chasteau, but it's unclear to kingdom when the 's' was dropped (in period or after). The submitted spelling was registered as a household designator, without comment, as recently as 2004 (Chateau Flammel, Ysabeau Anais Roussot du Lioncourt, 02/2004 A-Caid); hopefully, the College will be able to track down the documentation used for that submission.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

24: Irene Lenoir - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in April of 1990, via the East

(Fieldless) An olive branch bendwise fructed vert.

This badge is marked as "to be associated with Irene Lenoir", not with the household name submitted above. This badge is clear of the Barony of Madrone's (Fieldless) A madrone tree branch bendwise gules leaved vert (Jun. 1999 An Tir), with CDs for fieldlessness and the tincture of the branch, and possibly a third CD for the type of branch. Note that this depiction is grandfathered to the submitter (not that this should be necessary): she registered the mirror image of this badge (An olive branch bendwise sinister fructed vert) in March 2007 via the East.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

25: Iuliana Angelina - New Name & New Device

Vert, a squirrel and on a chief embattled Or, three acorns inverted slipped and leaved vert.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Language (7-10th cent. Byzantine) most important.
Culture (7-10th cent. Byzantine) most important.

Iuliana is a feminine name found in "Common Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the 6th and 7th Centuries" by Bardas Xiphias (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/PLRE_fem_names.html).

Angelina is from "Personal Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/structures.html), also by Bardas Xiphias. The article gives Maria Angelina Palaidogina as an example in the feminine names structures section, and identifies Angelina as a surname.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

26: Katharine Long - New Name & New Device

Per fess sable and Or, a lion rampant to sinister reguardant maintaining a fasces Or, and a fern leaf vert.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No changes.

Katharine is a header in Withycombe, dated to 1148.

Long is a surname dated to 1121-48 in R&W p. 271 s.n. Lang.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

27: Lasairfhiona inghean Cheallaigh - New Name & New Device

Vert, a horseshoe inverted argent and on a chief argent, two arrows in saltire sable.

Submitter desires a feminine name.

Lasairiona: OCM p. 121 says this was "a popular name in Connacht in the late middle ages". According to precedent, the submitted spelling Lasairiona is modern (post-1700) and not registerable (Lasairfhíona inghean Uilliam na Seoltadh, 09/2003 A-An Tir). The period (c. 1200 to c. 1700) spelling is Lasairfhíona.

Ceallaigh is the genitive of Ceallach, which is the Gaelic form of Kelly, according to OCM p. 48. The submitted byname 'ingen Ceallaigh' needs some corrections: ingen is the early (pre-c. 1200) spelling, which doesn't match the later-period spelling Ceallaigh (see Mari's "Annals Index" under Cellach, http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Cellach.shtml), and the patronymic needs to lenite in a feminine name.

The submitted Lasairiona ingen Ceallaigh has therefore been changed to Lasairfhiona inghean Cheallaigh in order to correct the grammatical and temporal problems.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

28: Leofric æt Couæntréé - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in September of 2005, via the East

Argent, a raven contourny proper and on a chief embattled vert three bezants.

His name was registered in Sep. 2005, via the East.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

29: Lilie Dubh inghean uí Mórdha - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in May of 2005, via the East

Azure, six owls and a chief argent.

Her name was registered in May 2005, via the East. Her previous device submission, Azure, six owls argent, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Antonia d'Alessandria (Dec. 2003 Atenveldt): Azure, an owl close, maintaining in its talons a tuft of wool pendant therefrom a drop spindle argent. This submission adds a chief to clear this conflict.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

30: Lukas von Ach - New Name & New Device

Quarterly vert and azure, a cross of Jerusalem between four mullets of six points argent.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Language (15c. German) most important.
Culture (15c. German) most important.

Lukas is dated to 1380 in Talan Gwynek's "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.htm).

von Ach is a surname found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/nurnberg1497.html).


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

31: Magdalena d'Arzenta - New Device Change

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in August of 2006, via the East

Gules, three spiders inverted, a bordure argent.

Old Item: Gules, a decrescent, an increscent, and a spider argent, to be released.

Her name was registered in Aug. 2006, via the East. Her original device change submission, Gules, three spiders argent, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Sabina le Sewester (Aug. 2003 West): Party of six gules and argent, three spiders inverted argent, with only a single CD for changes to the field. This submission adds a bordure to clear this conflict.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

32: Magnús Sigurðarson - New Name & New Device

Per pale Or and gules, a goat rampant and in chief a mullet of four points argent.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Sound most important.
Language (Scandinavian) most important.
Culture (Scandinavian) most important.

All documentation is from Geirr Bassi. Magnús and Sigurðr are listed as masculine names on pages 13 and 14, respectively. The genitive Sigurðar is one of the examples in the patronymics section, at the very bottom of p. 17.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

33: Michael of Carillion - New Household Name & New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in October of 2004, via the East

House of the Black Chicken

Gyronny of eight argent and gules, a hen displayed sable a bordure Or.

Submitted as House of the Rising Chicken. None of the 'I care most about' boxes are checked; the specifics line says "will accept: House of the Black Chicken". His holding name was registered in Oct. 2004, via the East.

Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "English Sign Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/inn) shows inns named for birds (cock, crane, etc.). "Project Ordensnamen" by Meradudd Cethin (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/order/) has Order of the Black Swan dated to 1350 in Belgium.

No documentation was provided for household names using the pattern [heraldic posture] + [bird or animal]. The only modifiers shown in Mari's article are colors and numbers, and Meradudd's list doesn't have any heraldic postures, either. The submission has therefore been changed to House of the Black Chicken, as specifically allowed by the submitter, in order to match the documentation.

The PicDic (no header or page given) says that while they're much rarer than roosters, chicken hens are found in period heraldry, such as the canting arms of the Counts of Henneberg, 1530. 'Rising' is a heraldic position for fowl.

This badge may conflict with Andrei de Sevastopol (Jan. 1973): Gyronny argent and gules, a double-headed eagle displayed sable. There's one CD for the bordure, but it's unclear whether there's a second CD for the type of bird. The Nov. 2003 Cover Letter discusses substantial (RfS X.2) difference, not CDs ("significant difference"), so it serves more to confuse the issue than to clarify it. Chickens and eagles are in different groups (poultry-shaped vs. regular-shaped birds), but the association of "displayed" with eagles is pretty strong, which may negate this difference. For what it's worth, Zenobia Naphtali's "Some birds and the postures in which they are found in period English heraldry" (included as an attachment to the above-mentioned Cover Letter: http://www.sca.org/heraldry/loar/2003/11/03-11brd.html) says there is a period English example of a dunghill cock displayed, so this posture isn't actually all that far afield.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

34: Miyamoto Torajirou Tadayoshi - New Name & New Device

Per bend sinister nebuly purpure and Or, a natural tiger ermine and a heron respectant azure.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Language (Sengoku era Japan) most important.
Culture (Sengoku era Japan) most important.

Neither change box is checked, but there's a note in the margin: 'only the changes noted below', and the last line of the documentation section is 'Client will allow changes to yobina only, if necessary.'

Miyamoto is a surname dated to 1568 in Solveig's Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan, p. 322.

Torajirou is a constructed yobina using the kanji <tora> 'tiger' and <jirou> 'second son' (ibid, pp. 171, 212, 370-373). Academy of St. Gabriel report 3157 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/3157) lists several examples of yobina which use an element meaning 'nth son'. The meanings of the first parts of these names range from 'small' to 'Master an Art' to 'wisteria'. The submitter and his herald believe that 'tiger' fits this pattern as something with characteristics which can be attributed to or desired for the bearer of the name.

Tadayoshi is a nobina dated to 1568 in Solveig, p. 232, meaning 'lucky/fortunate' + 'faithful/loyal'.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

35: Mórag filia Scayth - New Name & New Device

Vert, on a bend gules fimbriated three cinquefoils Or.

Submitter desires a feminine name.

She cares most about language and/or culture; the specifics line says 'Gaelic: Morag daughter of Scayth/Shaw'. The change boxes aren't marked, but there's a note in the margin to 'see below'. Below says: "Submitter prefers Mórag inghean Scayth. We know there are two problems with this, one with Morag, and one with the context of the patronymic. 1) Submitter will take Mór if necessary, but it's a decade since Morag was last discussed [continues unreadably in margin; the word 'time' is all I can make out]. 2) Submitter would prefer a form in Gaelic, preferably with 'Scayth', but will take any Gaelic form of the highland Shaw." It also says, in a different hand: "Submitter wants Scayth - Latin is fine".

Mór is a header in OCM, dated to the 10th century and 1548 as a feminine name. Black, in his introduction (p. lvi) says -ag is "now a feminine diminutive suffix (1) with nouns e.g. Fearu-aig 'little place of alders', (2) with adjectives, Dubh-ag 'little black one'." The name Morag the Wanderer was registered without comment in July 2001; the previous registration was in 1996. The consulting herald believes it seems reasonable to revisit the issue at this time.

Scayth is dated to 1388 in Black p. 721 s.n. Shaw: in qua situm manierium quondam Scayth filii Ferchardi. This is a Latin context, so the consulting herald modified the desired 'inghean' to 'filia'. (The worksheet and docs summary actually have 'Scaythi', with a note about guessing at the appropriate Latin genitive, but the 'i' has been scratched out on the 'Society Name' line.)


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

36: Nikolai Yekene Isakov - New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (Russian) most important.
Culture (Russian) most important.

All documentation from Wickenden (3rd ed.).

Nikolai is a header spelling, dated to 1291 as a male given name.

Yekene is a male given name dated to 1409 under Iakun.

Isakov is a patronymic dated to 1495 under Isaak.

The name pattern is outlined on p.xxxi: Christian name + native name + Christian patronymic.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

37: Preston of Aschehyrst - New Device

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in September of 2006, via the East

Argent, a bend sinister wavy azure, overall a crow rising sable.

His name was registered in Sep. 2006 via the East. His previous device submission, Argent, a crow rising wings addorsed sable and a chief dovetailed azure, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Alyna Duchez: Argent, a raven rising wings elevated and addorsed sable beaked and membered gules maintaining in its dexter claw a heart sable all within a bordure nebuly azure (Sep. 1995 Middle), with one CD for the bordure vs. the chief, but nothing for minor details of beak and leg coloration and wing posture, nor for removing the maintained charge. This submission changes the primary charge to a bend to clear this conflict.

This device is clear of both the Shire of Brad Leah (Apr. 1992 Ansteorra): Argent, a bend sinister wavy azure, overall a laurel wreath vert, and Erik Skræm (Aug. 1994 Drachenwald): Argent, a bend sinister wavy azure, overall a serpent bendwise embowed counter-embowed gules. In each case, there's one CD for the type and another for the tincture of the overall charge.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

38: Ragnarr valfrekr - New Name & New Device

Per pale sable and gules, a Thor's hammer between two ravens respectant and in chief a tyr rune argent.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
Meaning most important.

He cares most about meaning, specifically a battle- or fighting-related byname.

All docs from Geirr Bassi. Ragnarr, on p. 14, is identified as a masculine name found once in the Landnamabok. valfrekr is a byname on p. 29, glossed as 'val-fresh, greedy for battle-casualties'.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

39: Roger le Brouillard - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in September of 2002, via the East

Per pale sable and argent, a two-towered castle with a sword on each tower, in chief two swords in saltire, all counterchanged.

His name and device (Gules, in chevron seven mullets all between three lions rampant Or) were registered in Sep. 2002, via the East.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

40: Sciath ingen Chaennaig - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in October of 1999, via An Tir

Argent, on a saltire vert a beehive between four bees in saltire Or.

This badge is clear of the Barony of Tir-y-Don's Argent, a saltire vert, overall a dolphin haurient gules (Aug. 1988 Atlantia), with one CD for removing the overall charge, and another for adding the tertiary charges. It's also clear of Celemon Gwynedd and Johann Berndt (Jan. 2002 Drachenwald): (Fieldless) On a saltire couped vert a saltire throughout argent, with one CD for the field, and another for multiple changes to the tertiary charges.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

41: Simon Caspar Joder von Steffisburg - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in January of 2003, via the East

Or, a kindjal knife sable and overall a human eye sable.

His name and device (Or, in fess an ear of wheat and a crow's leg couped à la quise sable) were registered in Jan. 2003 via the East.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

42: Stephen Renwald - New Name & New Device

Argent, a bend sinister purpure between a raven volant, wings erect and a garden rose, slipped and leaved issuant from sinister base sable, a label couped purpure.

No changes.

Stephen is a header in Withycombe p. 273. Dated spellings include Stephanus 1273 and Steven 1450. Also, R&W p. 426 s.n. Stephen has Robert Stephen 1260.

Renwald is grandfathered to the submitter via his father's registered name, Corwin Renwald (May 1983 East). A letter is included from Corwin attesting that Stephen is his legal son.

There's a sticky note attached: "Note to ECH: the blazon 'garden rose' is probably grandfathered - send it up for CoA commentary." This is his father, Corwin Renwald's device, with a label. Corwin's device (Oct. 84 East) is Argent, a bend sinister purpure between a raven volant, wings erect, and a garden rose, slipped and leaved, issuant from sinister base sable.

This device was traced from Corwin's original submission form. Corwin has granted permission to conflict.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

43: Swannoc Foxton - New Name & New Device

Vert, two swans naiant in bend argent.

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Sound (swan-ock) most important.

She will allow addition of the word 'of' if needed for registration. Swannoc is dated to 1261 in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in Scottish Records", in the pre-1400 section, citing Black s.n. Porter p. 669. The entry in Black says "Margareta, Agnes, Swannoc or Suannoch ('swan neck'), Cristinia, and Mariota" were daughters of a Symon Gatekeeper.

Foxton is a header in R&W p. 176; dated forms include 'de Foxtone' 1159, 'de Foxton' 1303, and 'Foxton' 1382.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

44: Symon de Poitiers - New Name Change & New Device Change

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in March of 2008, via the East.

Azure semy-de-lys argent, a chevron between three gryphon's heads erased Or.

Old Item: Sion ap Llywelyn, to be released.
Old Item: Azure, on a chevron between three gouttes argent a drakkar azure, to be retained as a badge.
Submitter desires a masculine name.
Client requests authenticity for 1446 France (Nancy).
Language most important.
Culture most important.

Symon is from Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "Names from Choisy, France, 1475-1478" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/choisy.html).

Poitiers is a header in Morlet Noms de Famille p. 798; dated spellings include Peitieux 12th c. and 'var. anc.' Poiteux. Also, de Poitiers is dated to 1556 in Aryanhwy's "Late Period French Surnames (used by women)" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/latefrenchsurnames.html).

His original name was registered in January 2004, via the East.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

45: Symon de Poitiers - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in March of 2008, via the East

Azure semy-de-lys argent, a chevron Or.

This badge is clear of Gabrielle Flomoy (Jul. 1998 Meridies): Per chevron vert and purpure, a chevron Or between in chief three fleurs-de-lys and in base an owl volant contourny guardant wings elevated and addorsed argent, with one CD for the field, and another for the change in number of secondary charges (from four to semy).


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

46: Toki Redbeard - New Name Change & New Device Change

OSCAR NOTE: filing name should not be registered for a primary name change. It was, in in March of 2008, via the East.

Paly wavy argent and sable, a fess wavy gules.

Old Item: Garth Fairchild, to be retained as an alternate name.
Old Item: Azure, a bend sinister argent, overall a greyhound's head erased, vulned at the throat, proper, to be retained as a badge.
Submitter desires a masculine name.
No changes.

Tóki is a masculine name found on p. 15 of Geirr Bassi. The submitter prefers to omit the accent mark, which is allowed for Old Norse names as long as it's done consistently.

Redbeard is a Lingua Anglica rendering of rauðskeggr 'red beard', ibid p. 26.

His current name was registered July 1980, via the East.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

47: Toki Redbeard - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in March of 2008, via the East

(Fieldless) A chevron wavy couped paly wavy argent and sable.

His name change appears above.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

48: Wentliana Bengrek - New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.
No major changes.
Language (Welsh - Gwenliana Pengrych) most important.
Culture (Welsh - Gwenliana Pengrych) most important.

Wentliana is one of the medieval spellings found under the feminine name Gwenllian in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/welsh13.html).

Pengrek is a period spelling of the byname Pengrych 'curly-head' in the same source.

As Tangwystyl's Guide says, "Women will always use the mutated form of a nickname." The byname has therefore been changed from the submitted Pengrek to Bengrek. This name is clear of Gwenllian Bengrych ferch Rhys (Jun. 2004 Atlantia) by removal of the patronymic.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

49: William Percival de Drummyn - Resub Name & New Device

Per pale sable and purpure, a caltrop Or and on a chief argent, three equal-armed Celtic crosses sable.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Sound most important.

His original name submission of William de Drummyn was returned on the Aug. 2006 LoAR for conflict with the Scottish poet William Drummond (1585-1649). This submission adds a surname to clear this conflict.

William is a header in Withycombe, p. 293; the entry says the name was introduced into England by the Normans in the 11th century, and has been one of the most common men's names ever since.

Percival is a surname dated to 1372 in R&W p. 346 s.n. Perceval. de Drummyn is a locative dated to 1199 in Black p. 222 s.n. Drummond.

This device was returned at Kingdom in 2006 because it was attached to a name that was returned. That was the only reason it was returned.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

50: Ysenda Macbeth of Islay - New Badge

OSCAR finds the name registered exactly as it appears in June of 2000, via the Middle

Vert, a tree eradicated and in chief a squirrel courant a bordure embattled argent.

Her name and device (Sable, on a bend between two lions salient argent three roses palewise azure) were registered in June 2000 via the Middle.

This is clear of Betva a Bedwyn (Jan. 2005 Atenveldt): Vert, a birch tree argent leaved Or, a bordure of knotwork argent, with one CD for fox vs. squirrel and one for the type of bordure.

This conflicts with Lilias de Cheryngton: Vert, a crequier within a bordure embattled argent (June 2004 East). Lilias has provided permission to conflict.


This item was on the 03-2008 LoAR

51: Zakalus Latizlo - New Name & New Device

Vert semy of crescents pendant, on a pile between two owls respectant guardant Or a tree proper.

Submitter desires a masculine name.
No major changes.
Language (Hungarian) most important.
Culture (Hungarian) most important.

Zakalus is a byname meaning 'bearded', found in this spelling numerous times on p. 875 under Szakállas in Szamota István & Zolnai Gyula: Magyar oklevél-szótár (Budapest, 1902). Cites include Johannis dicti Zakalus 1291, Laurencius dictus Zakalus 1329 (and many more 14th c. examples using 'dictus'), and Francisco Zakalus 1452. In addition, Kázmér Miklós: Régi Magyar családnevek szótára (Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság, Budapest, 1993) p. 960 s.n. Szakállas has Petrus Zakalus 1335.

Latizlo is a masculine name dated to 1228 on p. 479 s.n Ladizlou in Fehértói Katalin: Árpád-kori személynévtár (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004). It's probably a variant of Ladislaus/Vladislav, modern Hungarian László, although Fehertoi gives it a separate header.

Evidence for the form of the name (byname followed by given name) can be found in 14th century placename records. Szamota (op. cit.) s.n. László, for example, has Tarnoklazloufeulde 1369 'Steward Laszlo's field', and under János there's Bolugh-Janus-zoley 1347 'Lefty-John's-vineyard' along with the ambiguous Adasioanusfelde 1291, which may involve the old 'Jovanus' form of John, but if so, Eastern Crown can't figure out what the byname is.


It's been fun, everybody! For the last time:

- Istvan Blue Tyger

Bibliography

Bardsley, Charles Wareing. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Oxford University Press, London, 1901.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland. New York Public Library, 1989.

Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen. C.A. Starke-Verlag, Limburg, 1957-60.

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme and Akagawa Yoshio. A Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry as used in the Society for Creative Anachronism. 2nd ed., 1992.

Fehértói Katalin. Árpád-kori személynévtár. Akadémiai kiadó, Budapest, 2004.

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Private Press, Maryland, 1977.

Gruffudd, Heini. Enwau Cymraeg I Blant. Welsh Names for Children. Y Lolfa Cyf. Wales, 1980.

Hitching, F. K., and S. Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602. Walton-on-Thames, 1910-11; Baltimore: republished for the Clearfield Company, Inc. by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1998.

Johnston, James B. Place-Names of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1934.

Kázmér Miklós. Régi magyar családnevek szótára. Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság, Budapest, 1993

Morgan, T.J. and Prys Morgan. Welsh Surnames. University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1985.

Morlet, Marie-Thérèse. Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de L'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Siècle. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique: Paris, 1968, 1972, 1985.

Morlet, Marie-Therese. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille. Librairie Académique Perrin, 1997.

Ó Corraín, Donnchadh and Fidelma Maguire. Irish Names. Lilliput Press, Dublin, 1990.

Paul Wickenden of Thanet. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. 3rd edition. SCA, Inc., 2000.

Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Third edition, Oxford University Press, 1995.

Solveig Throndardottir. Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan. Carlsbad, N. Mex.: The Outlaw Press, 1994; Potboiler Press, 1999.

Szamota István & Zolnai Gyula: Magyar oklevél-szótár. Budapest, 1902.

Talan Gwynek. "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records." http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/scottishfem.html.

Withycombe, E.G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Third edition. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1979.


OSCAR counts 29 New Names, 2 New Name Changes, 2 New Household Names, 31 New Devices, 3 New Device Changes and 10 New Badges. These 77 items are chargeable, Laurel should receive $231 for them. OSCAR counts 3 New Holding Name Changes. OSCAR counts 2 Resub Names and 1 Resub Device. These 6 items are not chargeable. There are a total of 83 items submitted on this letter.

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